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Receiver Characterization using Periodic Small-Signal Analysis

Receiver Characterization using Periodic Small-Signal Analysis

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Ultimate guide to small signal steady state analyses
Ultimate guide to small signal steady state analyses

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WHITE PAPER
RECEIVER CHARACTERIZATION USING PERIODICSMALL-SIGNAL ANALYSIS
 
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Abstract . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Periodic small-signal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Periodic AC analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Measuring intermodulation distortion using PAC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Periodic transfer function analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Periodic noise analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Characterizing the receiver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Conversion gain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Noise figure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Intermodulation distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
TABLE OF FIGURES
Figure 1The small-signal response of a mixer as computed by PAC analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Figure 2Intermodulation distortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Figure 3The transfer functions computed by PXF analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 4How noise is moved around by a mixer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 5The block diagram of the high-performance image-rejection receiver being characterized . . . . . . . . . .3Figure 6The transfer functions from the
rf
input to
out
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Figure 7The noise figure from
rf
, assuming 50
source resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4
 
ReceiverCharacterizationusingPeriodicSmall-SignalAnalysi
RicardoTelicheveskyandKenKunderCadenceDesignSystems,SanJoseCJacobWhitMassachusettsInstituteofTechnology,CambridgeM
Abstract 
Periodicsmall-signalanalysisisarecentldevelopedapproachforACandnoiseanalysisoflineaperiodically-varyingcircuits.Thispaperpresentssev- eralnewapproachestocharacterizingthetransferfunc- tions,noise,anddistortionofcommunicationcircuitusingthisnewtechnique.Areceiverisusedasanex- ample,butthetechniquespresentedareapplicabletawidevarietyofcircuits,includingmixers,samplerssample-and-holds,chopper-stabilizedampliers,multipliersandswitched-capacitorlters
I.Introduction 
Theincreasingdemandforlow-costmobilecommunica- tionsystemshasgreatlyexpandedtheneedforsimulation algorithmsthatarebothecientandaccuratewhenap- pliedtoRFcommunicationcircuitssuchasmixers.The dicultyisthatRFcircuitsoftenprocesssignalsthatcon- tainclosely-spacedlargefrequencies.Forexample,atypical cellularphoneserviceconsistsof10kHzvoicebandchannelnear900MHz.
Spic
transientanalysisisextremelexpensiveforcircuitsthatcontainsuchsignalsbecauseineedstotakeverysmalltimestepstofollowthe900MHcarrier,andsimulateforalongtimetoadequatelyresolve thevoicebandmodulation.However,circuitssuchasamplierscanbelinearizedabouttheirDCoperatingpointandsmall-signalanalysissuchasACanalysisusedtoecientldeterminethesinusoidalsteady-stateresponseofthecircuitoveranarbitrarilyrangeoffrequencies.Thesameinottrueofcircuitssuchasmixersorswitched-capacitorltersthatmustbedrivenwithanadditionallargeperiodistimulusinordertooperateproperly.
II.PeriodicSmall-SignalAnalysi
Periodicsmall-signalanalyses 
addressperiodically- drivencircuitsusingatwo-stepprocess.First,the 
periodioperatingpoint 
isfoundbyperforming
periodicsteady- state(PSS)analysi
withonlythelargeperiodicstimulus applied.Forthecaseofamixer,onlytheLOisappliedwithswitched-capacitorlters,onlytheclockisapplied.
ManuscriptreceivedDecember8,1995.E-mailaddresses:ricardo@cadence.com,kundert@cadence.com,andwhite@rle-vlsi.mit.edu.
Thecircuitisthenlinearizedabouttheperiodicoperating point,andthesteady-stateresponseoftheperiodically- varyinglinearcircuitiscomputedassumingthatitisdriven withasmallsinusoidatanarbitraryfrequency.Thetimrequiredtocomputetheresponseofthelinearizedcircuitiaboutthesameasneededtocomputetheperiodicsteady- stateresponsetothelargestimulusalone,regardlessofthe frequencyofthesinusoid.Animportantaspectofperiodically-drivencircuitssuch asmixersandswitched-capacitorltersisthattheyexhibifrequencytranslation.Conventionalsmallsignalanalyse(ACandnoise)linearizesabouttheDCoperatingpointtcreatealineartime-invariantrepresentationofthecircuit,whichcannotexhibitfrequencyconversioneects.Wittheperiodicsmall-signalanalyses,thecircuitsarelinearized aboutatime-varyingoperatingpointandsocanexhibifrequencyconversioneects.Theoriginalapproachtoperiodicsmall-signalanalysiusedGaussianeliminationtofactorandsolvethesetof 
denselinearequationsthatdescribetheperiodically- varyinglinearizedcircuitataparticularfrequencywher
isthenumberofnodes1],2].Thetimerequiredtofactoradens
 
matrixisontheorderof 
,whichlimitthisapproachtocircuitscontainingatmostafewhundrenodes.However,byapplyingmatrix-freeKrylov-subspactechniques,thetimerequiredtosolvethesystemofequa- tionscanbereducedtotheorderof 
,allowingcircuits withupto5000nodestobesimulatedoverabroadrange offrequenciesinafewhours3],4].
A.PeriodicACAnalysi
TheperiodicAC(PAC)analysiscomputestheresponseofaperiodicallydrivencircuittoasmallsinusoidalinput atanarbitraryfrequency.Whenapplyingasmallsinusoidtoalineartime-invariant circuit,thesteady-stateresponseisasinusoidatthesamfrequency.However,whenapplyingasmallsinusoidtolinearperiodicallytime-varyingcircuit,thecircuitrespondwithsinusoidsatmanyfrequencies,asshowninFigure1.Thus,inasense,PACcomputesaseriesoftransferfunctions,oneforeachfrequency.However,withthesetransfer functionstheinputandoutputfrequenciesareosetbythe harmonicsoftheLO.Thesmallsignalfrequencycanbearbitrarilyclose,or 
1

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