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Barometer

Barometer

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Published by: michal_mironov on Dec 09, 2010
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www.transparency.org
TRANSPARENCYINTERNATIONAL
 
the global coalition against corruption
GLOBAL CORRUPTIONBAROMETER 2010
 
www.transparency.org
©2010 Transparency International. All rights reserved.ISBN: 978-3-935711-64-7Printed on 100% recycled paper. Authors: Juanita Riaño, with Finn Heinrich and Robin Hodess.Design: Sophie EverettGenerous support for the 2010 Global Corruption Barometer was provided by Ernst & Young and the Australian Agency for International Development. In-kind contributions to the Barometer were made by TI Bangladesh andthe Independent Authority Against Corruption of Mongolia.Every effort has been made to verify the accuracy of the information contained in this report. All informationwas believed to be correct as of December 2010. Nevertheless, Transparency International cannot acceptresponsibility for the consequences of its use for other purposes or in other contexts.© Cover photos (in order of appearance): istockphoto.com/Juanmonino, Flickr/spAvAAi,Flickr/Ferdinand Reus, istockphoto.com/Elena Korenbaum, istockphoto.com/Danish Khan,Flickr/RezaG!, istockphoto.com/Joanne Green, istockphoto/Christine Glade,istockphoto.com/Kevin Russ, istockphoto.com/Cristian Lazzari, istockphoto.com/JTSorrell,istockphoto.com/PhotoTalk, istockphoto.com/Alex Gumerov, istockphoto.com/Galina Dreyzina,Flickr/jirotrom, istockphoto.com/Danish Khan
Transparency International (TI) is the global civil society organisation leadingthe fight against corruption. Through more than 90 chapters worldwide and aninternational secretariat in Berlin, TI raises awareness of the damaging effectsof corruption and works with partners in government, business and civil societyto develop and implement effective measures to tackle it.
CONTENTS
Overview2Findings3Regionalclassification41.Theviewaroundtheworld5Truestory:balancingthebudget61.1Thesectororinstitutionmostaffectedbycorruption8Visualisingthedata#1102.Peoplesexperienceswithpettybribery122.1Pettybribery132.2Regressivenessofpettybribery15Visualisingthedata#2162.3Noreductioninpettybriberylevelsinthelastfiveyears182.4Whypaybribes?Toavoidproblemswiththeauthorities,mostpeoplesay193.Publicperceptionsandexperiencesofcorruptionalignwithexpertassessments20Truestory:goldmine224.Governmentanti-corruptioneffortsarenotseenaseffective,butthepublicbelievemediaandgovernmentarecrucialtostoppingcorruption24Truestory:drasticmeasures285.Peoplearewillingtoengageinthefightagainstcorruption30Conclusion33 AppendixA:aboutthesurvey34 AppendixB:questionnaire37 AppendixC:tablesbycountry/territory41 AppendixD:resultsbygender48 AppendixE:country/territorycoverageoftheBarometerovertime50EndNotes53
 
2 Transparency InternationalGlobal Corruption Barometer 2010
GLOBAL CORRUPTIONBAROMETER2010 
 Transparency International’s
Global Corruption Barometer 
(the Barometer) is the largestcross-country survey to collect the general public’s views on and experiences of corruption.In 2010 the Barometer interviewed more than 91,500 people in 86 countries, making it themost comprehensive edition since it was launched in 2003. The Barometer explores thegeneral public’s views about corruption levels in their country and their government’s effortsto ght corruption. The 2010 Barometer also probes the frequency of bribery, reasons forpaying a bribe in the past year, and attitudes towards reporting incidents of corruption. The Barometer complements the views of country analysts and businesspeople represented in Transparency International’s
Corruption Perceptions Index 
1
and
Bribe Payers Index 
2
, gatheringthe general public’s perceptions about how key institutions are affected by corruption. The2010 Barometer also explores whom people trust the most to ght corruption in their countries. The questions in the Barometer vary from year to year. As a result, time comparisons arelimited to questions that have been included in two or more editions. A general approach tocomparisons over time for the 2010 Barometer is to compare this year’s ndings with thoseearliest available for that question. In all cases, the years compared are indicated in the tableor graphic accompanying the analysis of changes over time.Public views on corruption are of critical importance. They offer signicant insight into howcorruption affects lives around the world. Transparency International believes it is critical topresent the general public’s perspective on corruption – for it is they who suffer its directand indirect consequences around the world. At the same time, Transparency Internationalencourages the public to play an active role in stopping corruption and improving governance. To this end, this year’s edition of the Barometer probes for the rst time public willingness toengage with the ght against corruption.Now in its seventh edition, the Barometer offers a unique opportunity to explore how people’sperceptions of corruption and encounters with bribery have changed over time in a number of countries.
3
FINDINGS:
Corruption levels around the world are seen asincreasing over the past three years- Almost six out of 10 report that corruption levelsin their country have increased over time- The biggest increase is perceived by respondentsin North America and EU+
4
Political parties are identied as the most corruptinstitution around the world- Eight out of 10 judge political parties as corruptor extremely corrupt, followed by the civil service,the judiciary, parliaments and the police- Over time, public opinion about political parties hasdeteriorated, while opinions of the judiciary have improvedExperience of petty bribery is widespread and hasremained unchanged as compared to 2006- The police is identied as the most frequentrecipient of bribes in the past 12 months. The policealso has the biggest increase in bribery incidents overtime, according to the general public surveyed- In eight out of nine services assessed, people inlower income brackets are more likely to pay bribesthan people in higher income brackets- The reason most often given for paying a bribeis ‘to avoid a problem with the authorities’Government action to ght corruption is often seenas ineffective- Across the world, one in two considers theirgovernment’s actions to be ineffective to stop corruption- While global views have not changed over time,opinions about government efforts have deterioratedin Asia Pacic, Latin America and Sub-Saharan Africa,but improved in the Newly Independent States+ andNorth AmericaThere is little trust in formal institutions to ght corruption- One in four worldwide does not trust any particularinstitution ‘most of all’ to ght corruption- Nearly one in four trusts the media or governmentthe most to stop corruptionThere is signicant belief that the public has a role tostop corruption – and a willingness for action inreporting on corruption when it occurs- Seven out of 10 respondents think ordinarypeople can make a difference in the ght againstcorruption, while half could imagine themselvesgetting involved- People are willing to report corruption to theauthorities: seven out of 10 respondents reportedthey would denounce an incident. This willingnessto report a case of corruption is more pronouncedin the Americas and EU+.
3© istockphoto.com/ 
Elena Korenbaum

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