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Softstart asinhronih mašina

Softstart asinhronih mašina

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Published by Mirsad Madeško

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Published by: Mirsad Madeško on Dec 09, 2010
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08/01/2013

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Meki start asinhronih mašinaMadeško Mirsad
Sažetak 
U radu je prezentiran sistem upravljanja asinhrone mašine za obezbjeđenje mekog startamašine. U prvom dijelu dat je osvrt na elektromotorne pogone, historijat, s prefiksom naasinhrone mašine kao i izumitelja ovih strojeva Nikole Tesle.U nastavku obrađene su asinhrone mašine, konstrukcijska izvedba, princip i režimi rada,zatim nadomjesne sheme i vrste pokretanja.Struktura i opis pretvarača za napajanje mašine za naponsko upravljanje razmarta se utrećem dijelu. Sklop koji vrši naponsko upravljanje naziva se softstarter, a njegov najvažniji dio je tiriac. Triac predstavlja tiristore u antiparalelnom spoju tj. sklop koji se naziva tiristorski ac/ac pretvarač. Tiristorski ac/ac pretvarač može biti jednofazni i trofatni, te može biti priključen narazna opterećenja koja su opisana u ovom poglavlju, opterećenje koje je značajno za ovu temu jeradno-induktivno jer to predstavlja motor.Motor može biti upotrebljern u razlicite svrhe, tj. da pogoni ventilator, pumpu, kompresor, pokretnu traku itd. Za lakse pokretanje jednog i više motora upotrebljava se softstarter odnosnovrši se naponsko upravljanje.Ukoliko se vezuje više motora s jednim softstarterom moraju se postovati pravila i poznavatinačin vezivanja. Takođe je potrebono postovati pravila i poznavati kada je riječ o nacinukonekcije s mrezom, te kako odabrati softstarter za različito opterećenje(aplikaciju).U posljednjem poglavlju izvršena je sinteza sistema upravljanja u jednoj fazi u programskom paketu PSIM, te su u istom programskom paketu urađena simulacija tiristorskogac/ac pretvarača na različita opterećenja.Simulaciju softstarta moguće je izvršiti poznavanjem ostalih gotovih besplatnih softverskihriješenja velikih tvrtki kao što su Simens i ABB, te je opisano korištenje i izvršena simulacijaSimensovog softvera pod nazivom win-softstarter i ABB-ovog softrvera koji se naziva ProSoft3. Na kraju su dati komentari dobivenih rezultata i zaključak.
Abstract
1
 
Meki start asinhronih mašinaMadeško MirsadIn this document it s presented system of directing and controlling asynchronous
 
machinewhich is used to creat and preaper sofstart. First chapter presents review of electromotive drivers,history, with prefix of asynchronous machine and their constructor Nikola Tesla.In
 
continuation are
 
wrought asynchronous
 
machines, construction, on what pricips and on whatway it s working, circuitrys and kind of starting up.Structure and description convertor for power supply mashine for voltage control has beenconsidered in thered chapter. Union which is perform voltage control is called softstarter, in andimportest part of softstarter is tiriac. Tiriac presents thyristor anti-parallel fasion, which it's calledthyristor ac/ac convertor and it can be monofase or threefase. It can be conected to diffrent kindof loadings descripted in this chapter. Loading which is importest for this theme is calledresistance -inductive becouse it is presents the motor.The motor can be used in diffrent cause such as moving fan, pump, compresor, convery belt etc.For easier starting one or more motors it is use softstart, or concerning voltage controll.If more motors has to conected to one softstart there are rules how has to respect other waysconecting cant be done, besies this rules the ways of conecting has to be knowen. Rules has to be respected when it s about of way of conection , and the way the softstart is choosen for diffrent application.Last chapter analysis controlling system of one fase in program pack calle PSIM, and inthis same program pack simulacija symulasion of thyristor ac/ac convertor on diffrent loadingshas done.Symulation of softstarta is possible to finish when its possible to use free sofstart solution s bigcompanies such as Siemens, ABB ,which description of using sofstart and where is completionsymulation of siemens software called win - softstarer and ABB s software called Prosoft3.At the end, discussion of results and conclusions have been included.SADRŽAJ
I
UVOD
.........................................................................................................5.
II
Opis i karakteristike asinhrone mašine
................................................7.
2
 
Meki start asinhronih mašinaMadeško Mirsad
2.1.
Uvod
..................................................................................................7.2.2.
Konstrukcijska izvedba
.....................................................................8.2.3.
Princip rada
.....................................................................................10.2.4.
Režimi rada
......................................................................................13.2.4.1. Motorski rad................................................................................13.2.4.2. Generatorski rad.........................................................................14.2.4.3. Elektromagnetna kočnica...........................................................14.2.5.
Nadomjesne sheme
.........................................................................15.2.6.
Pokretanje i kočenje
.......................................................................19.2.7.
Pokretanje motora direktnim spajanjem na mrežu (Direct onlinestart)
......................................................................................................19.2.8.
Pokretanje motora pomoću sklopke zvijeda-trokut....
................. 20.2.9.
Pokretanje motora pomoću autotransformatora
............................21.
III
Struktura i opis pretvarača za napajanje mašine za naponskoupravljanje
..........................................................................................22.
3.1.
Uvod
.................................................................................................22.3.2. Opis pojedinih dijelova.....................................................................24.3.3. Tiristorski ac/ac pretvarač................................................................ 25.3.3. Jednofazni tiristorski pretvarač napona...........................................25.3.4.1 Radno opterećenje......................................................................26.3.4.2. Radno induktivno opterećenje ..................................................26.3.5. Trofazni tiristorski pretvarač napona.................................................28.3.6. Primjena softstarta na opterećenje...................................................29.3.6.1. Centrifugalni ventilator ...............................................................29.3.6.2. Centrifugalna pumpa ................................................................30.3.6.3. Kompresor..................................................................................31.3.6.4. Pokretna traka............................................................................32.3.7. Vrijeme pokretanja, zaustavljanja i početni napon ...........................34.3.8. Načini vezivanja motora sa softstarterom ........................................34.3.8.1. Paralelni start ..............................................................................34.
3

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