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Vaccarino 1999

Vaccarino 1999

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Published by: Matias Ceballos Guzman on Dec 10, 2010
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Peptides 20 (1999) 1527–15740196-9781/99/$ – see front matter © 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.
PII: S0196-9781(99)00166-7
Review article
Endogenous opiates: 1998
Anthony L. Vaccarino
*, Gayle A. Olson
, Richard D. Olson
, Abba J. Kastin
a,baDepartment of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA 70148, USA bVeterans Affairs Medical Center, and Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70146, USAReceived 4 August 1999; accepted 27 August 1999AbstractThis paper is the twenty-first installment of our annual review of research concerning the opiate system. It summarizes papers publishedduring 1998 that studied the behavioral effects of the opiate peptides and antagonists, excluding the purely analgesic effects,althoughstress-induced analgesia is included. The specific topics covered this year include stress; tolerance and dependence; eating anddrinking;alcohol; gastrointestinal, renal, and hepatic function; mental illness and mood; learning, memory, and reward; cardiovascular responses;respiration and thermoregulation; seizures and other neurologic disorders; electrical-related activity; general activity andlocomotion; sex, pregnancy, and development; immunologic responses; and other behaviors. © 1999 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved.Keywords: Stress; Tolerance; Dependence; Eating; Drinking; Alcohol; Depression; Learning Memory; Cardiovascular responses;Temperature; Respiration;Epilepsy; Activity; Mental illness; Aggression; Sex; Immunology; Opiate; Peptide
1. IntroductionIn 1998, as in previous years, interest in the role of endogenous opiates in mediating behavior remained high.Although much of the research focused on characterizingthe role of opiate receptor types, there was a great deal of interest in the interactions between opiate and nonopiatesystems. Furthermore, besides the typical use of opiateagonists and antagonist, antisense techniques were increas-ingly used in 1998 to ‘knock out’ specific receptor types,allowing researchers further to delineate the relationships between opiate systems and behavior. This paper will re-view work published in 1998 that studied the behavioral andnonanalgesic activity (except stress-induced analgesia) of endogenous opiate systems. This represents the twenty-firstinstallment of our series of reviews that attempts to sum-marize the developments in the field during the past year.Stress-induced activation of endogenous opiate systems,and the changes that occurred because of stress, continuedto be of interest in1998. As had been reported in previousyears, the parameters of the stressor influenced both its behavioral effects and physiological consequences. Re-search continued to be strong in the field of opiate depen-dence and tolerance. Chronic administration of opiates pro-duced many changes within opiate systems, and particular attention was paid to long-lasting molecular and cellular adaptions. Clinically, the benefits derived from various pharmacological treatments were evaluated, including rapid

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