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Table Of Contents

Ecology and evolution
1.1Natural selection
1.3Proximate and ultimate factors
Methods of ecological research
2.1Hypothesis testing
2.2Observations and recording
2.3Correlation of field data
2.4Laboratory and field experiments
2.5Mathematical models
2.6Methods driving the direction of science
3.1Effects of the molecular structure of water
Special features of aquatic habitats
3.2 Vertical gradients
3.3 Other vertical gradients
3.4Running water
3.5Predictability of environmental conditions in water
Review questions
The individual in its habitat
4.1Individual requirements
4.2Abiotic factors
4.3 Resources
4.4 Energy utilization
4.5The importance of body size
5.1Features of populations
5.2Control of population size
5.3 Ecological genetics
5.4 Demography
5.6Classification of life-history strategies
5.7Dispersal and colonization
6.1Competition for resources
6.2Direct interactions of competitors
6.3 Predator–prey relationships
6.5 Predation
6.6 Parasitism
6.8Interactions of competition and predation
7.1 Characteristics of communities
7.2 “Superorganism” or “sieve”
7.3Internal structure of communities
7.4Species richness and diversity
7.5 Lake communities
7.6 Stream communities
8.1The ecosystem as an ecological unit
Ecosystem perspectives
8.2Flow of energy
8.5Comparisons of ecosystem productivity
8.6 Anthropogenic disturbances to ecosystems
8.7Ecosystem change
8.8Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functions
9.1Ecology and the biological sciences
9.2Ecology and society
Final remarks
9.3Ecology and the environment
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Published by Rosa Sugar

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Published by: Rosa Sugar on Dec 10, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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