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Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloys

Heat Treatment of Ferrous Alloys

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Published by: Syed Mohsin Ali Naqvi on Dec 11, 2010
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03/23/2013

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Submitted to:
Sir Saheeb Kiyani
Regn No.:
531
2010
 
Heat Treatment of ferrousAlloys
Submitted by:NS Syed Mohsin AliDate:7
th
june, 201030 Mts B
 
I.
 
H
EAT
 
TREATMENT
 
OF
 
FERROUS
 
ALLOYS
 
 NS Syed Mohsin Ali
 
30 Mts (B), Regn no. 531
 Abstract 
this document covers brief information about heat treatment of ferrous alloys. It discusses heat treatment processes of these alloys inindustries, used for hardening them and makes them suitable for manydifferent applications in our life.
I
NTRODUCTION
 
Ferrous alloys are iron based alloys that has extensive use in wide range of industries because of its flexibility to meet strength, toughness, and impact of diverse industrial applications. Thisflexibility depends on the heat treatment procedures, which modifies the final micro-structure.Examples of ferrous alloys include carbon steels, alloy steels, stainless steels, tool steels, castiron, cast steel, maraging steel, and specialty or proprietary iron-based alloys. Now-a-days, many alloy manufacturers are trying to meet the compositional standards of theUnified Numbering System (UNS). Unified Numbering System (UNS), jointly developed byAmerican Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the Society of Automotive Engineers(SAE), provides an overall designation system for thousands of metals and alloys in commercialuse. 
Types of ferrous alloys:
Various types of ferrous metals and alloys are available in the market.
1.
Carbon steels are ferrous alloys that contain carbon and small levels of other alloyingelements, such as manganese or aluminium.
2.
Alloy steels contain low to high levels of elements such as chromium, molybdenum,vanadium and nickel.
3.
Stainless steels are highly corrosion resistant, ferrous alloys that contain chromium and/or nickel additions.
4.
Cast iron, a ferrous alloy, contains high amounts of carbon. Ductile iron, gray iron andwhite cast iron grades are types of cast iron.
5.
Cast steel alloy grades are made by pouring molten iron into a mould.
6.
Cast Iron Alloy and Iron Alloy are two major ferrous alloys used in most industrialapplications.Heat treatment is also known as
metallurgy.
For ferrous metals annealing heat treatments are used to soften the steel, to improve themachinability, to relieve internal stresses, to impart dimensional stability, and to refine thegrain size.Hardening treatments are used to harden steels by heating to a temperature at whichaustenite is formed and then cooling with sufficient rapidity to make the transformation to pearlite or ferrite unfavourable.
 
Some heat treatments are used to alter the chemistry at the surface of a steel, usually toachieve preferential hardening of a surface layer. Carburizing consists of subjecting thesteel to an atmosphere of partially combusted natural gas which has been enriched withrespect to carbon. In the nitriding treatment, nitrogen diffusing to the surface of the steelforms nitrides. Chromizing involves the addition of chromium to the surface by diffusionfrom a chromium-rich material packed around the steel or dissolved in molten lead.There are different terms of heat treatment. Some of them are
AIR HARDENIG STEEL:
Alloy steel which does not require quenching from a high temperature to harden but whichis hardened by
 
simply cooling in air from above its critical temperature range.
AUSTEMPRING:
This is a method of hardening steel by quenching from the austenitizing temperature into aheat extracting material (usually steel) which is maintained at some temperature level between 400
o
C and 800
o
C and holding the steel in this medium until austenite istransformed into bainite. The austempring process is limited to sections less than ½’’diameter. The advantages of this method of interrupted quenching are increased ductilityand toughness at the resulting hardness of RC 45-55.An austemper plant, in which austempring of ferrous alloys is carried out.Effect of austempring on carbon steels.

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