Master of Business Administration-MBA Semester I
Subject Code – MB0043Subject Name –Human Resource Management4 Credits
(Book ID: B1132)Assignment Set- 1 (60 Marks)Note: Each question carries 10 Marks.Answer all the questions.Q.1 Trace the phases of evolution of human resource management.
The historical background to the management techniques of human resources are in voguesince ancient times. It’s only in the past 100 odd years that the techniques and study of humanbehaviour at work has become formal and structured with certain basic practices establishedas core and a host of other practices left to each organization to design and implement as pertheir individual business driven practices. As per Fisher, Schonfeldt and Shaw, in their book titled Human Resources Management, they have characterised the history of HRM as havingevolved through four broad phases, the Craft system, the scientific system, the humanrelations approach and the prevalent organizational science-human resources approach.
The Craft system
refers to early trends noticed in Egypt and Babylon, where skills basedtraining was provided to people to ensure a steady flow of craftsmen required to build hugemonuments. By the 13
century, subsequently the trend was noticed in Europe and later craftguilds evolved to ensure not only the skill acquisition but regulate the conditions of employment, level of skill and improved production techniques. Most relevant in thedomestic industry where generations of skilled workers trained and became experts in aparticular skill.
The Scientific Management approach
was a key part of the industrial revolution typical of the nineteenth and early twentieth century. It was instilled in the principles of massproduction and organization of work – simple work skills and supervisory/managerial skills.This rapidly emerged as the assembly line approach to managing workflow, which laterFredrick Taylor (1856-1915) pioneered based on the philosophy that employees wanted to beused efficiently and money being the primary motivator. Over a period of time this wasproved wrong as employee dissent grew and union issues surfaced. It was during this phasethat employee welfare as a key HR practice emerged which redressed employee issues likerecreational facilities, medical program and employee grievance systems.
The Human Relations approach
was an outcome of the famous studies undertaken by USsocial scientist Elton Mayo and Fritz Roethlisberger at the Western Electric’s Hawthorneplant in Chicago.
The Hawthorne Studies
: As described in virtually every book written about management, thehuman relations or behavioral school of management began in 1927 with a group of studiesconducted at the Hawthorne plant of Western Electric, an AT&T subsidiary. Curiously, thesestudies were prompted by an experiment carried out by the company’s engineers between1924 and 1932. Following the scientific management tradition, these engineers were applyingresearch methods to answer job-related problems.