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Silk Industry

Silk Industry

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Published by: shashimvijay on Dec 11, 2010
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Sericulture Industry
Sericulture is a labour-intensive industry in all its phases, namely, cultivationof silkworm food plants, silkworm rearing, silk reeling, and other post-cocoonprocesses such as twisting, dyeing, weaving, printing and finishing. It providesemployment to approximately 60 lakhs persons, most of them being small andmarginal farmers, or tiny & household industry mainly in the hand reeling andhand weaving sections. Cultivation of sericulture is not very widespread beingpracticed regularly in contiguous districts in the three southern States of Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu; in the NER; in the tribal areas of Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa; and in Jammu & Kashmir and West Bengal. The cocoons and silk processing industry has traditionallyexisted in clusters in areas not necessarily coinciding with the sericultureareas in Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Bihar.Reeling of silk is more widespread, with different clusters/traditionallyproducing distinctive designs and weavers, mainly in saris.
India has the distinction of cultivating all the four commercially knownvarieties of silk, namely, Mulberry, Tasar, Eri and Muga.II WORLD RAW SILK PRODUCTION
The World Raw Silk production (mulberry and non-mulberry) about 125605MT (2004)
mainly from two countries, China and India
. Chinaleads the world with silk production of 102560 MT
or 81.7% of theproduce. India ranks second in respect of world raw silk production. It is thisposition, as one of only two major silk producers in the world, and from itsemployment potential, that sericulture and silk derive their importance in theIndian textile map. Policy decisions are defined mainly by these twoconsiderations.
India’s raw silk production is 17305 MT (2005-06), 89.25% (15445 M.T.) of itis mulberry and 10.75% (1860 M.T.)
silks. The area reported by Statesas cumulatively planted under mulberry
is 1.79 lakh hectares (2005-06);
andthe production of cocoons is
126261 tonnes.
State-wise production of mulberry and non-mulberry silk is given in
As seen from the table below, though, area under sericulture has fallen-mainly because of drought in AP and Karnataka in the first two years of XPlan, as also due to price fluctuations, the productivity per ha. has beensteadily improving. The main reasons behind increase in production isimproved silkworm races and hybrids, better technologies in rearing andreeling, evolution of higher leaf yielding mulberry varieties.
 Production of raw silk (Tons)Per Ha.Productivity of mulberry (In Kg.)MulberryYear MulberryHectarageCocoonRawSilkNon-MulberryTotalCocoon Raw Silk1997-98 282244 127495 14048 1188 15236 451.72 49.771998-99 270069 126566 14260 1284 15544 468.64 52.801999-00 227151 124531 13944 1270 15214 548.23 61.392000-01 215921 124663 14432 1425 15857 577.35 66.842001-02 232076 139616 15842 1509 17351 601.60 68.262002-03 194463 128181 14617 1702 16319 659.15 75.162003-04 185120 117471 13970 1772 15742 634.57 75.462004-05 171959 120027 14620 1880 16500 698.00 85.022005-06 179065 12626115445 1860 17305 705.11 86.25V BIVOLTINE SILKS:With Japanese technology and cooperation, CSB has recently been able toevolve & popularize Bivoltine silkworm races which can yield raw silk of international standards. With these races, provided there is concomitantreforms in the marketing and processing of cocoons, India can hope toexpand its sale of domestic raw silk beyond its own borders. The X Plantarget for bivoltine raw silk production is 1500 tonnes (revised).VI SILK IMPORTS:(i) Demand Supply Gap: The domestic production of raw silk is notadequate to meet the domestic and export demand. It isestimated that against the demand of around 26,000 ton per annum the domestic production is around 17300 tonnes. Thegap of nearly 8700 tonnes in demand is mainly on account of the fact that high-grade quality mulberry raw silk is not beingproduced in the country to the extent required by the industry.This quality of mulberry raw silk is basically required in thepowerloom industry, for export purposes, and to some extent inthe handloom industry for warp purposes. To meet the demandof exporters, the Govt. has allowed the import of raw silk under O.G.L. as per WTO compatibility.(ii) Raw Silk Imports:-The quantity and value of raw silk imported during the last fiveyears is indicated as under:
 Raw SilkYear Quantity (in ton) Value (Rs. In Crores)1997-98 2346 218.331998-99 2824 259.361999-2000 5018 412.742000-2001 4713 475.152001-2002 6808 624.732002-03 9054 647.152003-04 9258 628.412004-05 7948 607.212005-06 8383 779.71Apr-Jul (Provisional)2006-07 1585 195.582005-06 2966 239.60IX EXPORTS(i) Export TrendExports of Indian silk products comprise mainly natural silk,fabrics, made-ups, ready-made garments, silk carpets and silkwaste. Indian Silk exports have grown during last few years,rising from Rs.1250.55 in the year 1998-99 to Rs.2421.98 croresin the year 2000-01. However, in the year 2001-02 and 2002-03export of silk goods showed a declining trend ie Rs.2359.56crores and Rs.2294.05 crores respectively. The export of silkgoods during 2003-04 was Rs.2779.19 crores (US$ 604.7million). The silk goods exports during 2005-06 was 3194.20crores (US$ 721.53 million) showing an increase of 11 % over 2004-05 which was Rs.2879.56 crores (US$ 640.90 million).(ii) Exports DataThe exports of silk goods during the last five years is indicated as under:Year (Figure in Rs. Crore)* Million US $1998-99 1250.55 297.041999-2000 1755.55 404.972000-2001 2421.98 530.212001-2002 2359.56 495.292002-2003 2294.05 474.082003-2004 2779.19 604.702004-05 2879.56 640.902005-06 3194.20 721.53April-July**2006-07 1046.56 228.912005-06 960.34 220.36* Including silk carpets and silk RMG.** The silk good exports during the period April-July of 2006-07 was 1046.56Crores (US$ 228.91) which was 9% more as compared to April-July period of 2005-06 which was 960.34 crores (US$ 220.36 million)

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