Physics 451 Fall 2004Homework Assignment #9 — Solutions
Textbook problems: Ch. 6: 6.1.3, 6.1.7, 6.2.5, 6.2.6, 6.3.3, 6.4.3, 6.4.4Chapter 66.1.3 Prove algebraically that

z
1
−
z
2
≤
z
1
+
z
2
≤
z
1

+

z
2

Interpret this result in terms of vectors. Prove that

z
−
1

<

z
2
−
1

<

z
+ 1

,
for
(
z
)
>
0We start by evaluating

z
1
+
z
2

2

z
1
+
z
2

2
= (
z
1
+
z
2
)(
z
∗
1
+
z
∗
2
) =

z
1

2
+

z
2

2
+
z
1
z
∗
2
+
z
∗
1
z
2
=

z
1

2
+

z
2

2
+ (
z
1
z
∗
2
) + (
z
1
z
∗
2
)
∗
=

z
1

2
+

z
2

2
+ 2
(
z
1
z
∗
2
)(1)We now put a bound on the real part of
z
1
z
∗
2
. First note that, for any complexquantity
ζ
, we have

ζ

2
= (
ζ
)
2
+ (
ζ
)
2
≥
(
ζ
)
2
. Taking a square root gives

ζ
 ≥ 
ζ

or
−
ζ
 ≤
ζ
≤ 
ζ

. For the present case (where
ζ
=
z
1
z
∗
2
) this gives
−
z
1

z
2
≤
(
z
1
z
∗
2
)
≤
z
1

z
2

. Using this inequality in (1), we obtain

z
1

2
+

z
2

2
−
2

z
1

z
2
≤
z
1
+
z
2

2
≤
z
1

2
+

z
2

2
+ 2

z
1

z
2

or(

z
1
−
z
2

)
2
≤
z
1
+
z
2

2
≤
(

z
1

+

z
2

)
2
Taking the square root then proves the triangle inequality. The reason this iscalled the triangle inequality is that, in terms of vectors, we can think of
z
1
,
z
2
and
z
1
+
z
2
as the three sides of a triangle
2
1
z
2
+
z z
1
z
Then the third side (

z
1
+
z
2

) of a triangle can be no longer than the sum of the lengths of the other two sides (

z
1

+

z
2

) nor shorter than the diﬀerence of lengths (

z
1
−
z
2

).