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monicalab3[1]

monicalab3[1]

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Published by Monica Patel

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Published by: Monica Patel on Dec 12, 2010
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03/02/2015

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Resonance Energy of Naphthalene by BombCalorimetry
Monica Patel, Christy Crowly, Casey Theys and Kyle Crane
 Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA16802Submitted: November 1st 
th
 , 2010 (CHEM 457, Section 2)
 
This experiment was used to determine the heat of combustion of naphthalene and to comparethat value to the literature value. The experimental value of H
comb, naph s
was determined to be-5212 KJ/mol. Comparing it to the literature value of -5160 KJ/mol gives a 1% error. This error was determined to be the cause of resonance stabilization. An experimental value of H
comb, naph s
was calculated by using Hess¶s Law, and was determined to be -5320 KJ/mol.
Introduction
Bomb calorimetry is often used to determine the standard enthalpy of combustion of asubstance (hydrocarbons). The standard enthalpy of combustion can then be used for determining other thermochemical properties such as heats of formation, bond energies andresonance stabilization energies of aromatic compounds. Naphthalene, for example, is one suchcompound.A bomb calorimeter is a sealed container, where a weighed sample of substance is placedin contact with an ignition wire inside. The bomb is filled to a pressure with O2, and then sealed.The bomb is then placed in a known amount of water. An electric current is passed through awire to set fire to the mixture. As the combustion takes place, the heat created raises thetemperature of the calorimeter and its surrounding water. This temperature change is measuredwith a thermometer. The data collected is then used to calculate the enthalpy of combustion of asubstance.The combustion of naphthalene is an exothermic process, and can be represented in thefollowing equation.C
10
H
8
(s) + 12O
2
(g) ---> 10CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O (l) H
comb, naph s
= -5160 KJ/mol (1)
 
 The energy released from this reaction is accounted for in the breaking and forming of bonds.The complete combustion of hydrocarbons usually produces two products: carbon dioxide andwater. If nitrogen, however, were present within the reaction, nitric acid would be produced inthe calorimeter.The following equations are used to calculate the theoretical enthalpy of combustion of naphthalene:C
10
H
8
(g) + 12O
2
(g) ---> 10CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O (g) (2)C
10
H
8
(s) --> C
10
H
8
(s) (3)H
2
O (l) --> H
2
O (l) (4)C
10
H
8
(s) + 12O
2
(g) ---> 10CO
2
(g) + 4H
2
O (l) (5)To determine the unknown enthalpy of combustion of a substance, a sample with aknown enthalpy of combustion is first tested using the bomb calorimeter. By using the followingequation, the specific heat of the calorimeter may be calculated.C
calorimeter 
= (-) [U
sample
m
sample
) + (U
fuse
m
fuse
)] / T (6)Where U
sample
is the heat of combustion of the sample or fuse in J/g,
m
sample
is the mass of thesample combusted, 
m
fuse
is the difference between the initial mass of the fuse and the mass of the fuse after combustion, and T is the difference between the final and initial temperatures of the water.

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