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Enumeration of Generalized Pol Yo Mi Noes

Enumeration of Generalized Pol Yo Mi Noes

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Published by: Lucius Gregory Meredith on Dec 13, 2010
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Enumeration of generalized polyominoes
M
ATTHIAS
K
OCH
and S
ASCHA
K
URZ
Department of Mathematics, University of Bayreuthmatthias.koch, sascha.kurz@uni-bayreuth.deD-95440 Bayreuth, Germany2nd February 2008
Abstract
As a generalization of polyominoes we consider edge-to-edge connected nonoverlappingunions of regular
k
-gons. For
n
4
we determine formulas for the number
a
k
(
n
)
of generalized polyominoes consisting of 
n
regular
k
-gons. Additionally we give a table of the numbers
a
k
(
n
)
for small
k
and
n
obtained by computer enumeration. We finish withsome open problems for
k
-polyominoes.
1 Introduction
A polyomino,in its originaldefinition, is a connected interior-disjointunion of axis-aligned unitsquares joined edge-to-edge. In other words, it is an edge-connected union of cells in the planarsquare lattice. For the origin of polyominoes we quote Klarner [13]: “Polyominoes have a longFigure 1: Polyominoes with at most 5 squares.1
 
history, going back to the start of the 20th century, but they were popularized in the present erainitially by Solomon Golomb i.e. [5,6, 7], then by Martin Gardner in his
Scientific American
columns.At the present time they are widely known by mathematicians, physicists, chemistsand have been considered in many different applications, i.e. in the
Ising Model
[2]. To givean illustration of polyominoes Figure1depicts the polyominoes consisting of at most 5 unitsquares.One of the first problems for polyominoes was the determination of there number. Altoughthere has been some progress, a solution to this problem remains outstanding. In the literatureone sometimes speaks also of the cell-growth problem and uses the term animal instead of polyomino.Due to its wide area of applications polyominoes were soon generalized to the two othertessellations of the plane, to the eight Archimedean tessellations [4] and were also consideredas unions of 
d
-dimensional hypercubes instead of squares. For the known numbers we refer tothe “Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences” [19].Figure 2: A nice
5
-polyomino.2
 
In this article we generalize concept of polyominoes to unions of regular nonoverlapping edge-to-edge connected
k
-gons. For short we call them
k
-polyominoes. An example of a
5
-polyo-mino, whichreminds somewhatto Penrose’s famousnon-periodictilingoftheplane, isdepictedin Figure2. In the next sections we determine exact formulas for the number
a
k
(
n
)
of noniso-morphic
k
-polyominoes with
k
4
and give some further values for small parameters
k
and
n
obtained by computer enumeration. So far edge-to-edge connected unions of regular
k
-gonswere only enumerated if overlapping of the
k
-gons is permitted [9]. We finish with some openproblems for
k
-polyominoes.
2 Formulas for the number of 
k
-polyominoes
By
a
k
(
n
)
we denote the number of nonisomorphic
k
-polyominoes consisting of 
n
regular
k
-gons as cells where
a
k
(
n
) = 0
for
k <
3
. For at most two cells we have
a
k
(1) =
a
k
(2) = 1
. If 
n
3
we characterize three edge-to-edge connected cells
C
1
,
2
1
3
C
2
C
1
C
3
β 
Figure 3: Angle
β 
=
(
1
,
2
,
3
)
between three neighbored cells.
C
2
and
C
3
of a
k
-polyomino, see Figure3,by the angle
β 
=
(
1
,
2
,
3
)
between the centersof the cells. Since these angles are multiples of 
2
πk
we call the minimum
min
(
1
,
2
,
3
)
k
2
π,
(2
π
(
1
,
2
,
3
))
k
2
π
the discrete angle between
C
1
,
C
2
, and
C
3
and denote it by
δ
(
C
1
,
C
2
,
C
3
)
.
Lemma 1
Two
k
-gons
C
1
and 
C
3
joined via an edge to a
k
-gon
C
2
are nonoverlapping if and only if 
δ
(
C
1
,
C
2
,
C
3
)
k
+56
. The three
k
-gons are neighbored pairwise if and only if 
k
0
mod 
6
.
Proof.
We consider Figure3and set
β 
=
δ
(
C
1
,
C
2
,
C
3
)
2
πk
. If the cells
C
1
and
C
3
are non-overlapping we have
1
3
1
2
because the lengths of the lines
1
2
and
2
3
are equal.Thus
β 
2
π
6
and
δ
(
C
1
,
C
2
,
C
3
)
k
+56
is necessary. Now we consider the circumcircles of the3

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