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Haar Transform

# Haar Transform

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baseline of haar transform and haar filter
baseline of haar transform and haar filter

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12/13/2011

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HAAR TRANSFORMProbably the simplest useful energy compression process is the Haar transform.In 1-dimension, this transforms a 2-element vector
(1)(2)
x x
into
12
y y
using:
1122
y x

y x
(1)where
111112
. Thus
1
y
and
2
y
are simply the sum and difference of
1
x
and
2
x
, scaled by
12
to preserve energy. Note that
is an orthonormalmatrix because its row are orthogonal to each other (their dot products are zero) and they are normalised to unit magnitude. Therefore
1
T
!
(In this case
is symmetric so
T
!
). Hence we may recover
x
from
y
using:
1122
x y x y
¨ ¸ ¨ ¸
¡
(2)In 2-dimensions
x
and
y
become 2x2 matrices. We may transform first the columsof
x
, by premultiplying by
, and then the rows of result by post multiplying by
. Hence:
y
x
!
(3)and to invert:
x T y
!
a b
xc
¨ ¸
!

then
12
a
b
c
a
b
c  y
a
b
c
a
b
c
ª º
These operations correspond to the following filtering processes

Top left:
a b
c
!
4-point average or 2-D lowpass (Lo-Lo) filter

Top right:
a b
c
!
Average horizontal gradient or horizontal highpassand vertical lowpass (Hi-Lo) filter.

Lower left:
a b
c
!
Average vertical gradient or horizontal lowpass andvertical highpass (Lo-Hi) filter.

Lower right:
a
b
c
!
Diagonal curvature or 2-D highpass (Hi-Hi) filter.To apply this transform to a complete image, we group the pels into 2x2 blocksand apply (3) to each block. The result (after reordering) is show in Figure 1(b). Toview the result sensibly, we have grouped all the top left components of the 2x2 blocks in
y
together to form the top left subimage in Figure 1(b), and done thesame for the components in the other 3 positions to form the corresponding other 3subimages.It is clear from Figure 1(b) that most of the energy is contained in the top left (Lo-Lo) subimage and the least energy is in the lower right (Hi-Hi) subimage. Notehow the top right (Hi-Lo) subimage contains the near vertical edges and the lower left (Lo-Hi) subimage contains the near-horizontal edges.

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