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Physiology Chap2 (the Cell and Its Functions)

Physiology Chap2 (the Cell and Its Functions)

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Published by Man Dejelo
topics sir ngo mentioned
topics sir ngo mentioned

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Published by: Man Dejelo on Dec 13, 2010
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12/13/2010

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CHAPTER 2: The Cell & Its Functions
Physical Structure of the Cell
Membranous Structures of the Cell
Cell Membrane
-
E
nvelops the cell; a thin, pliable, elastic structure only 7.5 to 10 nanometers thick
-
Composed almost entirely of proteins and lipids
-
Approximate composition is proteins, 55%; phospholipids, 25%; cholesterol, 13%; other lipids, 4%; and carbohydrates, 3%
Integral and Peripheral Cell Membrane Proteins
INT
EGR
AL P
RO
T
E
INS
-
Provide structural
channels
through which water molecules and water-soluble substances can diffuse between theextracellular and intracellular fluids; also have selective properties that allow preferential diffusion of some substancesover others
-
Act as
carrier proteins
for transporting substances that otherwise could not penetrate the lipid bilayer; transportsubstances in the direction opposite to their electrochemical gradients for diffusion, which is called "active transport; actas
enzymes.
 
-
Serve as
receptors
for water-soluble chemicals, such as peptide hormones, that do not easily penetrate the cell membraneP
ER
IPH
ER
AL P
RO
T
E
INS
-
O
ften attached to the integral proteins; function almost entirely as enzymes or as controllers of transport of substancesthrough the cell membrane "pores."
Membrane Carbohydrates-The Cell "Glycocalyx." 
-
Combine with proteins or lipids in the form of 
g
lycoproteins
or
g
lycolipids.
The "glyco" portions of these molecules almostinvariably protrude to the outside of the cell, dangling outward from the cell surface. Thus, the entire outside surface of the cell often has a loose carbohydrate coat called the
glycocalyx 
.
 
-
G
LYC
O
CALYX: repels negative charges, acts as receptors
Cytoplasm and Its
O
rganelles
1.
 
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-
Network of tubular and flat vesicular structures in the cytoplasm; tubules and vesicles interconnect with one another;walls are constructed of lipid bilayer membranes that contain large amounts of proteins
R
ibosomes and the Granular Endoplasmic 
R
eticulum ( 
ROU 
GH E 
R)
 
-
R
ibosomes are Attached to the outer surfaces of many parts of the rough
ER
; The ribosomes are composed of a mixture of 
R
NA and proteins, and they function to synthesize new protein molecules in the cell
 A
granular Endoplasmic 
R
eticulum (SM
OO
TH E 
R)
 
-
Has no attached ribosomes; functions for the synthesis of lipid substances and for other processes of the cells promotedby intrareticular enzymes.
2
.
 
G
olgi Apparatus
-
closely related to the rough
ER
; composed of four or more stacked layers of thin, flat, enclosed vesicles lying near one sideof the nucleus; prominent in secretory cells
3
.
 
L
ysosomes

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