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Physiology Chap4 (Transport of Substances Through Cell Membrane)

Physiology Chap4 (Transport of Substances Through Cell Membrane)

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Published by Man Dejelo
topics mentioned by sir ngo only.
topics mentioned by sir ngo only.

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Published by: Man Dejelo on Dec 13, 2010
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12/13/2010

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CHAPTER 4: Transport Substances through Cell Membranes
The Lipid Barrier of the Cell Membrane, and Cell Membrane Transport Proteins
-
This membrane consists almost entirely of a
lipid bilayer,
but it also contains large numbers of protein moleculesin the lipid, many of which penetrate all the way through the membrane
 
D
iffusion
 
D
iffusion Through the Cell Membrane
-
S
imple diffusion:
kinetic movement of molecules or ions occurs through a membrane opening or throughintermolecular spaces without any interaction with carrier proteins in the membrane; can occur through the cell
 
membrane by two pathways:(1) through the interstices of the lipid bilayer (2) through watery channels that penetrate all the way through some of the large transport proteins-
F
acilitated diffusion
requires interaction of a carrier protein; carrier protein aids passage of the molecules or 
 
*The box shows whetherit is extracellular orintracellular
 
ions through the membrane by binding chemically with them and shuttling them through the membrane in thisform.
F
acilitated
D
iffusion
-
arrier-mediated diffusion
because a substance transported in this manner diffuses through the membrane usinga specific carrier protein to help; the carrier 
fa
ilitates
diffusion of the substance to the other side.
-
 Although the rate of simple diffusion through an open channel increases proportionately with the concentration of the diffusing substance, in facilitated diffusion the rate of diffusion approaches a maximum, called V
max,
as theconcentration of the diffusing substance increases
 
Transport of sodium andpotassium ions throughprotein channels. Also shownare conformational changesin the protein molecules toopen or close "gates"guarding the channels.
 
Effect of concentration of a substanceon rate of diffusion through amembrane by simple diffusion andfacilitated diffusion. This shows thatfacilitated diffusion approaches amaximum rate called the V
max
.
 
 
 
-
 Among the most important substances that cross cell membranes by facilitated diffusion are
lu
ose
and most of the
amino a
ids.
In the case of glucose, at least five glucose transporter molecules have been discovered invarious tissues.
 
*P
ostulated mechanism for facilitateddiffusion.
 

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