CHAPTER 3: Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis, Cell Function, and Cell Reproduction
Genes in the Cell Nucleus
Basic Building Blocks of DNA
Basic chemical compounds involved in the formation of DNA(1)
(2) a sugar called
(3) four nitrogenous
and two pyrimidines,
ganization of the Nucleotides to Fo
ands of DNA Loosely Bound to Each
Each purine base
of one strand always bonds with a pyrimidine base
of the other strand, and
Each purine base
always bonds with a pyrimidine base
he importance of DNA lies in its ability to control the formation of proteins in the cell. It does this by means of a
Consists of successive "triplets" of bases-that is, each three successive bases is a
The successive tripletseventually control the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule that is to be synthesized in the cell and areresponsible for successive placement of the three amino acids,
The DNA Code in the Cell Nucleus Is Transferred to an RNA Code in the Cell Cytoplasm-The Process of Transcription
Basic Building Blocks of RNA
almost the same as those of DNA, except for two differences. First,
is used in the formation of RNA, containing anextra hydroxyl ion appended to the ribose ring structure. Second, thymine is replaced by another pyrimidine,
Assembly of the RNA Chain from Activated Nucleotides Using the DNA Strand as a Template-The Processof "Transcription"
large protein enzyme that has many functional properties necessary for formation of the RNA molecule.They are as follows:1.
Promoter (sequence of nucleotides in DNA); The RNA polymerase has an appropriate complementary structure thatrecognizes this promoter and becomes attached to it.2.
Polymerase causes unwinding of about two turns of the DNA helix and separation of the unwound portions of the twostrands.3.
Polymerase moves along the DNA strand, unwinding and separating the two DNA strands at each stage of its movement; itadds at each stage a new activated RNA nucleotide to the end of the newly forming RNA chain by the following steps:a.
it causes a hydrogen bond to form between the end base of the DNA strand and the base of an RNA nucleotidein the nucleoplasm.b.
RNA polymerase breaks two of the three phosphate radicals away from each of these RNA nucleotides, liberatinglarge amounts of energy; this energy is used to cause covalent linkage of the remaining phosphate on thenucleotidec.
When the RNA polymerase reaches the end of the DNA gene, it encounters a new sequence of DNA nucleotidescalled the
this causes the polymerase and the newly formed RNA chain to breakaway from the DNA strand.d.
its weak hydrogen bonds with the DNA template break away; the RNA chain is forced away from the DNA and isreleased into the nucleoplasm.