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Physiology Chap3

Physiology Chap3

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Published by Man Dejelo
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Published by: Man Dejelo on Dec 13, 2010
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CHAPTER 3: Genetic Control of Protein Synthesis, Cell Function, and Cell Reproduction
Genes in the Cell Nucleus
Basic Building Blocks of DNA
Basic chemical compounds involved in the formation of DNA(1)
 phosphoric acid 
(2) a sugar called
deoxyribose
(3) four nitrogenous
bases
(two purines,
adenine
and
guanine,
and two pyrimidines,
thymine
and
cytosine
)
Or 
ganization of the Nucleotides to Fo
rm
Two St 
ands of DNA Loosely Bound to Each
O
the
 
1.
 
Each purine base
adenine
of one strand always bonds with a pyrimidine base
thymine
of the other strand, and
 
2.
 
Each purine base
guanine
always bonds with a pyrimidine base
cytosin
 
Genetic Code
-
 
he importance of DNA lies in its ability to control the formation of proteins in the cell. It does this by means of a
genetic code
.
 
-
Consists of successive "triplets" of bases-that is, each three successive bases is a
code wo
.
The successive tripletseventually control the sequence of amino acids in a protein molecule that is to be synthesized in the cell and areresponsible for successive placement of the three amino acids,
 proline, serine,
and
glutamic acid 
 
The DNA Code in the Cell Nucleus Is Transferred to an RNA Code in the Cell Cytoplasm-The Process of Transcription
Basic Building Blocks of RNA
-
almost the same as those of DNA, except for two differences. First,
ribose
is used in the formation of RNA, containing anextra hydroxyl ion appended to the ribose ring structure. Second, thymine is replaced by another pyrimidine,
u
acil 
.
 
Assembly of the RNA Chain from Activated Nucleotides Using the DNA Strand as a Template-The Processof "Transcription"
-
RNA
polymerase:
large protein enzyme that has many functional properties necessary for formation of the RNA molecule.They are as follows:1.
 
Promoter (sequence of nucleotides in DNA); The RNA polymerase has an appropriate complementary structure thatrecognizes this promoter and becomes attached to it.2.
 
Polymerase causes unwinding of about two turns of the DNA helix and separation of the unwound portions of the twostrands.3.
 
Polymerase moves along the DNA strand, unwinding and separating the two DNA strands at each stage of its movement; itadds at each stage a new activated RNA nucleotide to the end of the newly forming RNA chain by the following steps:a.
 
it causes a hydrogen bond to form between the end base of the DNA strand and the base of an RNA nucleotidein the nucleoplasm.b.
 
RNA polymerase breaks two of the three phosphate radicals away from each of these RNA nucleotides, liberatinglarge amounts of energy; this energy is used to cause covalent linkage of the remaining phosphate on thenucleotidec.
 
When the RNA polymerase reaches the end of the DNA gene, it encounters a new sequence of DNA nucleotidescalled the
chain-terminating sequence;
this causes the polymerase and the newly formed RNA chain to breakaway from the DNA strand.d.
 
its weak hydrogen bonds with the DNA template break away; the RNA chain is forced away from the DNA and isreleased into the nucleoplasm.
 
DNA Base
 
RNA Base
 guanine  cytosinecytosine  guanineadenine  uracilthymine  adenine3 Types of RNAEach type of RNA plays an independent and entirely different role in protein formation:1.
 
M
essenger 
RNA
(mRNA) - carries the genetic code to the cytoplasm for controlling the type of protein formed.2.
 
ransfer 
RNA
(tRNA) - transports activated amino acids to the ribosomes to be used in assembling the proteinmolecule.3.
 
R
ibosomal 
RNA
-
forms
ribosomes,
the physical and chemical structures on which protein molecules are actuallyassembled.
Messenger RNA-The Codons
-
m
RNA
:
long, single RNA strands that are suspended in the cytoplasm; contain
codons
that are exactly complementary tothe code triplets of the DNA genes.
Transfer RNA-The Anticodons
-
Each type of tRNA combines specifically with 1 of the 20 amino acids that are to be incorporated into proteins; acts asa
carrier 
to transport its specific type of amino acid to the ribosomes, where protein molecules are forming
-
small molecule in comparison with mRNA
-
The specific code in the tRNA that allows it to recognize a specific codon is again a triplet of nucleotide bases and is calledan
anticodon
.
This is located approximately in the middle of the tRNA molecule
Ribosomal RNA
-
constitutes about 60 percent of the
ribosome
 
-
The ribosome acts as a manufacturing plant in which the protein molecules are formed.Formation of Ribosomes in the Nucleolus
-
Ribosomal RNA is specially processed in the nucleolus, where it binds with "ribosomal proteins" to form granularcondensation products that are primordial subunits of ribosomes. These subunits are then released from the nucleolusand transported through the large pores of the nuclear envelope to almost all parts of the cytoplasm; Proteins are formedin the cytoplasm of the cell, but not in the cell nucleus, because the nucleus does not contain mature ribosomes.
Formation of Proteins on the Ribosomes-The Process of "Translation"
-
while the messenger RNA travels through the ribosome, a protein molecule is formed-a process called
anslation
.
 
oly 
iboso
m
es
-
A single messenger RNA molecule can form protein molecules in several ribosomes at the same time because the initialend of the RNA strand can pass to a successive ribosome as it leaves the first
 
 Chemical Steps in Protein Synthesis:1.
 
Each amino acid is activated by a chemical process in which ATP combines with the amino acid to form an
adenosinemonophosphate complex with the amino acid,
giving up two high-energy phosphate bonds in the process2.
 
The activated amino acid, having an excess of energy, then
combines with its specific transfer 
RNA
to form an amino acid-
RNA
complex 
and, at the same time, releases the adenosine monophosphate3.
 
The transfer RNA carrying the amino acid complex then comes in contact with the messenger RNA molecule in theribosome, where the anticodon of the transfer RNA attaches temporarily to its specific codon of the messenger RNA, thuslining up the amino acid in appropriate sequence to form a protein molecule. Then, under the influence of theenzyme
 peptidyl transferase
(one of the proteins in the ribosome),
 peptide bonds
are formed between the successiveamino acids; the synthesis of proteins is one of the most energy-consuming processes of the cell.
The DNA-Genetic System Also Controls Cell Reproduction
Cell Reproduction Begins with Replication of DNA
-
The first step is
replication (duplication) of all D
NA
in the chromosomes
 
he
m
ical and 
hysical Events of DNA Replication
DNA is replicated in much the same way that RNA is transcribed in response to DNA, except for a few important differences:1.
 
Both strands of the DNA in each chromosome are replicated2.
 
Both entire strands of the DNA helix are replicated from end to end, rather than small portions of them3.
 
The principal enzymes for replicating DNA are a complex of multiple enzymes called
D
NA
polymerase,
which iscomparable to RNA polymerase;
D
NA
ligase,
causes bonding of successive DNA nucleotides to one another, usinghigh-energy phosphate bonds to energize these attachments.4.
 
DNA strand occurs simultaneously in hundreds of segments along each of the two strands of the helix until the entirestrand is replicated; the ends of the subunits are joined together by the DNA ligase enzyme.5.
 
Each newly formed strand of DNA remains attached by loose hydrogen bonding to the original DNA strand that wasused as its template.
A,B,C  ProphaseD  PrometaphaseE  MetaphaseF  AnaphaseG,H - Telophase

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