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Table Of Contents

Symbols and Definitions
AERODYNAMIC PRINCIPLES
General
Pressure Distribution
Types of Flow
BASIC AERODYNAMIC THEORY
The Equation of Continuity
Bernoulli’s Theorem
The Flat Plate Effect
Pressure Distribution around an Aerofoil
Summary
REYNOLDS NUMBER
Scale
Fluid Flow
Scale Correction
Viscosity
Reynolds Number
Aerodynamic Forces
Inertial and Viscous Forces
Vortex or Circulation Theory
Distribution of Pressure About the Wing
Centre of Pressure (CP)
Aerodynamic Centre
Coefficient of Lift (CL)
Factors Affecting CL
Aerofoils
Performance
Components of Total Drag
ZERO LIFT DRAG
The Boundary Layer
Surface Friction Drag
Transition to Turbulence
Form Drag (Boundary Layer Normal Pressure Drag)
Streamlining
Interference Drag
LIFT DEPENDENT DRAG
Induced Drag (Vortex Drag)
Factors Affecting Induced Drag
Increments of Zero Lift Drag Resulting from Lift Production
Variation of Drag with Angle of Attack
Variation of Lift/Drag Ratio with Angle of Attack
TOTAL DRAG
Boundary Layer Separation
Aerodynamic Symptoms
Pitching Moments
Tip Stalling
STALLING SPEED
Basic Stalling Speed
Weight Change
Manoeuvre
Configuration
Power
AUTOROTATION
Phases of the Spin
The Steady Erect Spin
Motion of the Aircraft
Effect of Attitude on Spin Radius
Moment of Inertia (I)
Inertia Moments in a Spin
Aerodynamic Moments
Balance of Moments
SPIN RECOVERY
Effect of Controls in Recovery from a Spin
Effect of Ailerons
Effect of Elevators
Effect of Rudder
Inverted Spin
Oscillatory Spin
Conclusions
Aspect Ratio
Aspect Ratio and Induced (Vortex) Drag
Aspect Ratio and Stalling Angle
Use of High Aspect Ratio
The Effects of Taper
Stall Patterns
SWEEPBACK
Swept-back Leading Edges
Effect of Sweepback on Lift
Effect of Sweepback on Drag
Effect of Sweepback on Stalling
Alleviating the Tip Stall
Pitch-up
The Crescent Wing
FORWARD SWEEP
Wing Flexure
Vortex Generation
Stalling
DELTA WINGS
Tailless Delta
Increase in Stalling Angle
The Slender Delta
VARIABLE GEOMETRY WINGS
Stability and Control Problems
CANARD WINGS
Use and Disadvantages
SUMMARY
Planform Considerations
Principle of Operation
Automatic Slats
Uses of the Slat
FLAPS
Purpose
Action of the Flap
Types of Flap
Effect of Flap on the Stalling Angle
Changes in Pressure Distribution with Flap
Change in Pitching Moment with Flap
Lift/Drag Ratio
Use of Flap for Take-Off
Leading Edge Flap
Jet Flap
Effect of Sweepback on Flap
Effect of Flap on Wing Tip Stalling
BOUNDARY LAYER CONTROL
Boundary Layer Control by Blowing
Vortex Generators
Deflected Slip-Stream
Devices to Augment Lift
General Considerations
Control Characteristics
Aerodynamic Balance
Mass Balance - Flutter
Control Requirements
Control Response
Steady State Response
PRIMARY CONTROL SURFACES
Elevators
Ailerons
The Rudder
The All-Moving (Slab) or Flying Tail
The Variable Incidence (VI) Tail
The Vee Tail
AIRBRAKES
Effect of Altitude on Effectiveness
BRAKE PARACHUTE
Parachhute Diameter
Cross-wind Landings
Jettisoning of Brake Parachute
Inadvertent Streaming in Flight
Flight Controls
Fixed Tabs
Trim Tabs
Other Methods of Trimming
BALANCE TABS
Geared Tabs
Servo-Tabs
Spring Tabs
Dual Purpose Tabs
Control Locks on Servo and Spring Tab Control Surfaces
Tailplane and Elevator
Variation of Speed in Level Flight
Effect of Weight on Level Flight
Effect of Altitude on Level Flight
CLIMBING
Forces in the Climb
Power Available and Power Required
Climbing Performance
Effect of Altitude on Climbing
Operating Data Manuals
GLIDING
Forces in the Glide
Gliding for Endurance
Gliding for Range
Effect of Wind
Effect of Weight
Axes of Movement of an Aircraft
Acceleration
Gravity
Calculation
THE MANOEUVRE ENVELOPE
The Limits to the Basic Envelope (Theory)
Variations in CLmax
The Modified Envelope due to Reduction in CLmax
Structural Limitations
Information Available from a Manoeuvre Envelope
Limitations due to Power Unit
TURNING
The Minimum Radius Turn
The Maximum Rate Turn
Effect of Thrust
Nomogram of Turning Performance
Manoeuvring Considerations
Minimum Radius Level Turns
Maximum Rate Turns
Use of Flap
STATIC STABILITY
Definitions
Directional Stability
Longitudinal Stability
Stick-Free Longitudinal Stability
Manoeuvre Stability (Steady Manoeuvres Only)
Lateral Stability (Stick Fixed)
DYNAMIC STABILITY
Dynamic Stability of Aircraft
Longitudinal Dynamic Stability
Lateral Dynamic Stability
Spiral Stability
Dutch Roll
Static and Dynamic Stability of Aircraft
THE DESIGN PROCESS
Military Aircraft Procurement
The Design
OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR AIRFRAMES
Static Strength and Stiffness
Material Requirements
Use of Materials
WING STRUCTURES
Design Considerations
Wing Loads
Structural Design
TAILPLANE, CANARD AND FIN
FUSELAGE DESIGN
Combat Aircraft
Transport Aircraft
Fuselage Structural Components
Introduction - Structural Integrity
Metal Fatigue
Design Philosophy
Establishing Fatigue Life
Fatigue Life Monitoring
Unmonitored Flying
Fatigue Life Conservation
The Stages of Failure
Miner's Rule
Critical Crack Length (CCL)
Wave Propagation
Pressure Waves from a Moving Source
SHOCKWAVES
Formation of a Bow Shockwave
Wing Surface Shockwaves
Acceleration of a Supersonic Flow
Expansive Corners
Compressive Corners
Nature of a Shockwave
THE EFFECTS OF COMPRESSIBILITY ON LIFT
Subsonic Rise in CL
Transonic Variations in CL
Supersonic Fall in CL
Variations in Maximum Value of CL
Compressive Lift
Vortex Lift
THE EFFECTS OF COMPRESSIBILITY ON DRAG
Wave Drag
Trim Drag
THE EFFECTS OF INCREASING MACH NUMBER ON STABILITY
Transoninc Longitudinal Stability
Supersonic Longitudinal Stability
Transonic Lateral Stability
Supersonic Lateral Stability
Inertia Cross-coupling
Yaw Divergence
Pitch Divergence
Autorotation
Design Requirements for High Speed Flight
Wing Sections
The Supercritical Wing
Low Thickness/Chord Ratio Wings
Leading Edge Separation
Points to Maximum Thickness
Sweepback and its Advantages
Effect of Sweepback on Lift and Drag
Reduced Advantages of Sweepback
High α Problems of Swept Wing Aircraft
Modification to the Swept Planform
OTHER PLANFORMS
Delta Wings
Slender Deltas
Crescent Wings
Polymorph Wings
Canard Designs
BODY/WING COMBINATION
Area Rule
Control
Basic Principles
Propeller Control
Other Modes
Power Absorption
Propeller Twisting Moments
Swing on Take-off
ROTOR AERODYNAMICS
Rotor Systems
Forces on an Aerofoil
Blade Design
Relative Flow
Lift and Drag
Total Rotor Thrust
Washout
CONTROL
Collective Pitch Changes
Control of Rotor RPM (Nr)
Flapping
Coning
Limits of Rotor RPM
Overtorqueing
Overpitching
HOVERING
Take-Off and Climb to a Free Air Hover
Vertical Descent
Ground Effect
Recirculation
HORIZONTAL MOVEMENT
Cyclic Pitch Changes
Flapping to Equality
Control Orbit
Pitch Operating Arm Movement
Phase Lag
Advance Angle
Dragging
Torque Reaction
Tail Rotor Compensation
Rotor Configurations
Forces in the Hover and in Forward Flight
Transition
Translational Lift
Summary of Transition
Transition From Forward Flight to Hover
Landing
Symmetry and Dissymmetry of Rotor Thrust
Flapback
Inflow Roll
Factors Affecting Maximum Forward Speed
AUTOROTATION IN STILL AIR
Autorotative Force/Rotor Drag
Rate of Descent
Relative Airflow - Vertical Autorotation
AUTOROTATION WITH FORWARD SPEED
Relative Airflow - Forward Autorotation
Rate of Descent Requirements in Autorotation
Autorotation for Endurance and Range in Still Air
Flare
Avoid Area for Autorotation
Ground Resonance
Blade Sailing
Static and Dynamic Rollover
Vortex Ring
Development of Vortex Ring State
Effects of Vortex Ring State and Recovery Action
Tail Rotor Failure
Work
POWER REQUIRED
Rotor Profile Power
Induced Power
Parasite Power
Power Required
Power Available
Effect of Limited Power
Power Checks
Best Climbing Angle
Turning
Stability in the Hover
Stability in Forward Flight
Stability Aids
Control Power
Types and Configuration
Pilot's Controls
POWER UNITS
Piston Engines
Free Turbine Engines
Engine Anti-Icing
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS
Typical Layout
Blade Construction
Balancing
Blade Development for Higher Forward Speed
Blade Inspection Method
TAIL ROTORS
Tail Rotor Hub
Tail Rotor Blade
Shrouded Tail Rotor
Speed Limitations
Advancing Blade Concept
Partially Compounded Helicopters
Tilt-Rotor and Tilt-Wing Helicopters
Payload Increases
Control of Tandem Rotor Helicopters
Control Cross-Coupling
Range of Specific Gravity
Flight Planning
Computing the Variation in Range
ENGINE CONSIDERATIONS
Thrust
Specific Fuel Consumption
AIRFRAME CONSIDERATIONS
Efficiency
Specific Air Range
TAS/Drag Ratio
ENGINE AND AIRFRAME COMBINATION
The Cruise Climb
Principles
Effect of Temperature
Twin and Multi-Engine Aircraft
Use of the Fuel Flowmeter
Reporting Procedure - Aircraft Endurance
Low Altitude
High Altitude
Fast Cruise
CRUISE CLIMB
LEVEL CRUISE
CLIMB, DESCENT AND EMERGENICES
Climb
Descent
Power Utilization
Factors Affecting Power Output
Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC)
Flying for Range
Considerations
Field Lengths
Speeds
Temperature
Altitude and Height
Aerodrome Surface Characteristics
Weights
Take-off Planning Considerations
Take-off Field Length Requirements
Final Take-off Analysis
Legal Definition of an Obstacle
Flight Path Profile
Construction Sequence
En Route Obstacle Clearance
Effect of Wind on Drift Down Path
Landing Planning Considerations
Landing Distance Requirements
Presentation of Data
Regulated Take-Off Graphs (RTOGs)
Conclusion
General Description
Detailed Instructions
Range of V1 Using D and X Graphs
Method
Safety Considerations
Performance Operating Limitations
Load Classification Number (LCN) System
Equivalent Single Wheel Loading (ESWL)
Load Classification Group (LCG) System
Application of the LCG System
Pavement Classification Number (PCN)/Aircraft Classification Number (ACN)
Miscellaneous Load Classification Systems
Taxiways/Parking Areas
WEIGHT AND BALANCE
Aircraft Weight Limitations
Effect of Increasing All-Up Weight on Aircraft Performance
Balance
Effects of Unbalanced Loading
Changes in Weight and Balance During Flight
CENTRE OF GRAVITY
Centre of Gravity Limits
Determination of Centre of Gravity
Using the CG Position Graph
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Complete Aircraft- Aerodynamics

Complete Aircraft- Aerodynamics

Ratings: (0)|Views: 9,994 |Likes:
Published by Satheesh SM
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE

AP 3456

Volume 1
PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT
Tucano T Mk 1

Table of Contents
PAR SEC CHA TITLE T T P 1 THE PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT - FIXED WING AIRCRAFT 1 Basic Principles of Flight 1 The Atmosphere 2 Aerodynamic Force 2A Aerodynamic Theories 3 Lift 4 Drag 5 Stalling 6 Spinning 6A Gyroscopic Cross-Coupling between Axes 7 Wing Planforms 8 Lift Augmentation 9 Flight Controls 10 Trimming and Balance Tabs

Page 1 : Wed Jan 02 02:21:08 2002

Volume 1

1- 0- 0- 0

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE

AP 345
DO NOT DISTRIBUTE

AP 3456

Volume 1
PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT
Tucano T Mk 1

Table of Contents
PAR SEC CHA TITLE T T P 1 THE PRINCIPLES OF FLIGHT - FIXED WING AIRCRAFT 1 Basic Principles of Flight 1 The Atmosphere 2 Aerodynamic Force 2A Aerodynamic Theories 3 Lift 4 Drag 5 Stalling 6 Spinning 6A Gyroscopic Cross-Coupling between Axes 7 Wing Planforms 8 Lift Augmentation 9 Flight Controls 10 Trimming and Balance Tabs

Page 1 : Wed Jan 02 02:21:08 2002

Volume 1

1- 0- 0- 0

DO NOT DISTRIBUTE

AP 345

More info:

Published by: Satheesh SM on Dec 13, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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