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Table Of Contents

1. Aspirations for National Unity 6
Expounding the Principles 47
Balancing the Universal with the Particular 49
About the Institute for International
The eyes of the world are now focused on Sudan not only because
After half a century during which the country experienced two wars
Government of Sudan (GOS) and the Sudan People’s Liberation Move-
The Agreement gave the people of the South the right of self-deter-
Although the recently discovered lucrative oil reserves have at-
Sudan is therefore a country in which the stakes are high in oppo-
African Union maintain two major peacekeeping operations in the
South and Darfur. Unless the Southern referendum and results are
This book is a powerful statement by an individual who is deeply
Francis Deng comes from the North-South border area of Abyei in
Sudan. Francis Deng has been a strong believer in the unity of his
This is a book that is a must-read for all those concerned with
Many people joined forces to enable this book to be available as a
Officer Stephen Freedman; and the Dean of the Graduate School of
(IIHA) at Fordham University
Sudan at the Brink is the ninth volume in the IIHA book series, and
book has been generously supported by The Center for International
Humanitarian Cooperation
Peace Agreement (CPA). The settlement met with varying responses at
The international community was relieved that the war that had raged
While the potential partition of the country remained a matter of con-
Sudan would survive as a united nation
Congress Party (NCP) that had negotiated the agreement have not
The protocol on Abyei gave the people the right to decide in a
Abyei Border Commission (ABC) whose findings the NCP-dominated
An aspect of the problems of the CPA implementation was the
Oslo pledges of support that would take peace dividends to the South
Southern secession to rid themselves of the non-Muslim factor that
Cynics believed that the NCP was not concerned about secession be-
The more the international community demonstrated the resolve to
Some leading regional and international personalities began to
With the January 2011 self-determination referendum fast ap-
This book aims at contributing to that debate by reconceptualizing
United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) on Self-determination and
National Unity. These statements are then followed by a note on the
Since negotiations pose ongoing challenges for addressing the myriad
The 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) between the Gov-
First Vice President of the Republic and President of the Government
The way he had been received in Khartoum by crowds estimated in
But John Garang is gone and the question now is: What choices
But that vision cannot be acceptable to those ideologically committed
Nelson Mandela—which all recognize as a noble vision. But it is one
The Sudanese now have critical choices to make. Continuing in a
Southern support would in turn most likely trigger Northern manipu-
All this calls for consensus building among the major political
Ababa in order to meet and consult with the new leaders. My decision
I arrived in Khartoum as the National Dialogue on Peace Issues was
Deng Majok, which in essence reflect that contribution of leadership at
The words stuck in might be local or Arabic. What I come back with
What does one conclude from these features of the SPLA reflec-
What does this mean? It means that there is definitely a threat to
fillment of their aspirations at the regional level. They are already pos-
If we take these two positions together: the positive in terms of the
Salvation have been calling a radical solution. Given the common vi-
Let me now address some of the issues that are being contested. In all
The crisis comes in when what we identify ourselves and our nation
It has been my policy-oriented assumption that the labels that di-
Sudan and Minister of State for Foreign Affairs at a time when we
Let me now turn to issues pertaining to the work of this conference
The best approach is for the internal forces to use this dialogue to
To the extent that we can even conceive of the SPLM/A being in-
This means that the results of this dialogue cannot be conceived
Permit me to end on a few concluding remarks. The question has
Sudanese then I believe we will free ourselves to search constructively
In my discussions with the late Nazir Babo Nimir of the Missiriya
Let me say in conclusion once more how much I have appreciated
Time was running out and while most observers maintained a neutral
As the organ of the United Nations most directly involved with the
It is a great pleasure and honor to have been invited to address this
Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide
Peace Agreement (CPA) on the appropriate framework for unity seem
Everyone is called upon to play a role in promoting the overriding
My stance for conditional unity has deep roots in my background
Arbitration on the borders
I was also a member of an informal resource group convened by the
Inter-Africa Group to support the Inter-Governmental Authority for
CSIS focused on developing a U.S.-Sudan policy that provided
A critical element in that report was the need to reconcile two
People do not go to war to kill and risk being killed without a compel-
The critical questions that therefore need to be asked and answered
One word that is often used these days as a root cause of the re-
North
Divisive subjective factors of self-identification eventually over-
Southern reaction was initially manifested in a secessionist war that
The unilateral abrogation of that agreement by the central govern-
Liberation Movement and Army (SPLM/A) that championed the cause
Sudan inevitably threatens the identity-based interests of the dominant
The call for the New Sudan began to tear down the walls that had
The CPA has addressed the national identity crisis between the North
Although the CPA stipulated that efforts be exerted during the in-
Engaging the international community both to oversee the credibility
Sudanese on all sides as the nation searches for an inclusive identity
This note builds on the findings and observations from my recent visit
findings:
North. The one word often given as the root cause of these prolifer-
The foregoing findings lead to the following correlative observa-
GoSS and in the Southern states. Tribal leaders also have a largely
(GoNU) and the NCP in particular must bear the responsibility for
But even more important is the moral dimension which means dra-
South Sudan as neighbors with deeply rooted bonds of history. Free-
It must be born in mind that the failure to honor the CPA could be
Negotiations with third-party mediation are the counterpart to violent
(1983–2005) ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The
I see negotiation and the closely related field of diplomacy as es-
This can only be valid if it is understood to mean that grounds for
flict is therefore normal. If it means that conflict is the normal pattern
Even more important than strict empirical interpretation would be
It is important to emphasize that the objective is not merely to
This means addressing the root causes and observing such fundamen-
Conflict in this context can be defined as a situation of interaction
The achievement of peace and reconciliation becomes a common
These subjective perspectives cannot be ignored when negotiation
flict becomes a disruption that is destabilizing not only to the commu-
The proposed principles on negotiation should be seen in the context
Principle Two: It is unhealthy to keep grievances ‘‘in the stomach’’ or
Principle Three: Face-saving is crucial to resolving conflicts. One must
Principle Four: It is important to listen very carefully and allow the
Principle Five: Historical memory of the relations gives depth to the
Principle Seven: The mediator must listen very patiently to both par-
Principle Eight: While the wisdom of words and the ability to persuade
Principle Nine: Diplomatic negotiations combine elements of both in-
Principle Ten: While the tendency of the negotiators is to see the out-
The win-win formula should be the objective and whatever the
There must be a degree of parity in both sides winning or losing
The principles presented above do not claim to be a panacea. Quite
Sudan. This must be reversed if Sudan is to enhance its full capacity
South and in Abyei as scheduled and respecting the choice of the
It is also widely agreed that the parties should negotiate postrefer-
The international community has also realized the importance of
African divide that is more perceptional than factual
The report of the African Union High-Level Panel on Darfur—
CPA and the South. These complex sets of considerations are also
Even more pertinently they will continue to identify themselves with
Abyei also offers a similar challenge between the North and the
South. If the Southern referendum were to take place before Abyei’s
It has always been my view that there is much more in common
This is too lofty and compelling a vision for any leader deserving na-
The Institute for International Humanitarian Affairs (IIHA) offers stu-
At a time when terrorism and war are at the forefront of international
The IIHA trains students for careers in the humanitarian field by com-
field. We provide consultation on humanitarian affairs to the Fordham
P. 1
Sudan at the Brink

Sudan at the Brink

Ratings: (0)|Views: 3,470|Likes:
Ã?"As an old Sudanese proverb so rightly says, a difficult path necessitates a competent guide, and there could be no better guide through the complexities of the forthcoming referendum on SudanÃ?'s future than Francis Deng. With customary skill and candor, he outlines the road ahead without failing to warn of dangerous turns and treacherous shortcuts. His book is a timely comment on a situation of grave concern to Africa and the international community.Ã?"Ã?--Kofi Annan, former Secretary-General of the United Nations, Nobel Peace LaureateÃ?"I first met Francis Deng when he presented a concept paper for a meeting of all the Sudanese parties organized by the Carter Center and which I chaired. I was deeply impressed by Francis DengÃ?'s intellectual and diplomatic ability to bridge the wide gulf dividing the parties in SudanÃ?'s conflict. This book reflects that quality, which is tragically very rare in countries torn apart by conflict. I hope it will be widely read and taken seriously, especially by his fellow Sudanese.Ã?"Ã?--Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Nobel Peace LaureateÃ?"Sudan is at a critical juncture, as the 2011 referendum in the South will determine whether the country will remain united or be partitioned. But as Francis Deng argues in this insightful and thoughtful book, unity and partition are but varying degrees of ongoing relationships which can be strengthened or weakened according to the will of the people and their leaders. Mutual interests that will endure dictate that the Sudanese parties work on developing sustainable and mutually beneficial cooperation beyond the referendum and whatever its outcome. Brief as the book is, it is an eloquent expression of Francis DengÃ?'s dedication of long standing to the cause of peace and unity for his country and people. His penetrating views will undoubtedly contribute to the debate on these issues of vital importance to the destiny of Sudan and Africa. They should indeed be taken seriously.Ã?"Ã?--President Thabo Mbeki, Chairman of the African Union High Level Implementation Panel on Sudan
Ã?"As an old Sudanese proverb so rightly says, a difficult path necessitates a competent guide, and there could be no better guide through the complexities of the forthcoming referendum on SudanÃ?'s future than Francis Deng. With customary skill and candor, he outlines the road ahead without failing to warn of dangerous turns and treacherous shortcuts. His book is a timely comment on a situation of grave concern to Africa and the international community.Ã?"Ã?--Kofi Annan, former Secretary-General of the United Nations, Nobel Peace LaureateÃ?"I first met Francis Deng when he presented a concept paper for a meeting of all the Sudanese parties organized by the Carter Center and which I chaired. I was deeply impressed by Francis DengÃ?'s intellectual and diplomatic ability to bridge the wide gulf dividing the parties in SudanÃ?'s conflict. This book reflects that quality, which is tragically very rare in countries torn apart by conflict. I hope it will be widely read and taken seriously, especially by his fellow Sudanese.Ã?"Ã?--Archbishop Desmond Tutu, Nobel Peace LaureateÃ?"Sudan is at a critical juncture, as the 2011 referendum in the South will determine whether the country will remain united or be partitioned. But as Francis Deng argues in this insightful and thoughtful book, unity and partition are but varying degrees of ongoing relationships which can be strengthened or weakened according to the will of the people and their leaders. Mutual interests that will endure dictate that the Sudanese parties work on developing sustainable and mutually beneficial cooperation beyond the referendum and whatever its outcome. Brief as the book is, it is an eloquent expression of Francis DengÃ?'s dedication of long standing to the cause of peace and unity for his country and people. His penetrating views will undoubtedly contribute to the debate on these issues of vital importance to the destiny of Sudan and Africa. They should indeed be taken seriously.Ã?"Ã?--President Thabo Mbeki, Chairman of the African Union High Level Implementation Panel on Sudan

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Publish date: Sep 29, 2010
Added to Scribd: Dec 14, 2010
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:082323441X
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