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Landslide Hazard Potential Analysis Using Gis, Patalganga

Landslide Hazard Potential Analysis Using Gis, Patalganga

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Published by: Rahul Devrani on Dec 14, 2010
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European Journal of Scientific ResearchISSN 1450-216X Vol.45 No.3 (2010), pp.346-366© EuroJournals Publishing, Inc. 2010http://www.eurojournals.com/ejsr.htm
Landslide Hazard Potential Analysis Using Gis, PatalgangaValley, Garhwal, Western Himalayan Region of India
Kumar Kishor
Scientist F, Geotechnical Engineering DivisionCentral Road Research Institute New Delhi, India
Rahul Devrani
 Department of Geology, University of Delhi, India
E-mail: rahuldevrani18@gmail.com
Sudhir Mathur
Scientist F, Geotechnical Engineering DivisionCentral Road Research Institute New Delhi, India
Abstract
Patalganga drainage basin, a mountainous valley, is located in North westernHimalayan region of Garhwal between longitude 79
0
29
15
E - 79
0
29
30
E and Latitude30
0
29
25
 N - 30
0
29
15
 N. An important National Highway No. 58 goes across the valleyand is the only connecting route between this region and rest of the country. The valley aswell as the National Highway had suffered from bewildering variety of Landslides andother mass movements during an unprecedented rainfall of July 1970. Since 1970, the population and the associated developmental activities in the valley got increased by manyfolds without any disaster mitigation and management planning. The vulnerability of thevalley to landslide disasters also increased relatively to the developmental activities. Tostudy the current status as well as the future probability of landslide development and their consequences, a project was initiated in the year 2002. Under this project Landslide HazardPotential (LHP) analysis of the basin was carried out to prepare a Landslide SusceptibilityPotential Map (LSPM) for guiding future development within the basin. To do suchanalysis and prepare LSPM a variety of thematic information maps pertaining to thedifferent factors were generated in 1:12500 scale using latest satellite data and extensivefield investigations. All the maps with their analysis and outputs are prepared in GIS platform. In this paper a stepwise approach applied for landslide hazard potential analysis isdescribed with a final output of Landslide Susceptibility Potential Map of the area whichwill be helpful in guiding the development of the valley in future.
Keywords:
Landslide Susceptibility Potential Map, Thematic Information Layers, FactorsRating,
Probability Analysis
 
 
Landslide Hazard Potential Analysis Using Gis, PatalgangaValley, Garhwal, Western Himalayan Region of India 347
1. Introduction
Hazards related to landslides are major societal and environmental concern. These are responsible for considerable socio – economic losses than is generally recognized (Khire, 2004) and because of their socio economic implications as well as the scientific interest, these can be considered as a problem of greater relevance (L. Cascini et al., 1992). The study of landslides has drawn global attention mainlydue to the increasing awareness of its socio-economic impacts and increasing pressure of urbanizationon the mountain environment (Aleotti and Chowdhury, 1999). Landslides have represented 4.89% of the total natural disasters that occurred worldwide during the years 1990 - 2005 (www.em-dat.net).These are rapidly becoming the focus of major scientific research, engineering study and practices, andlanduse policy making throughout the world (Mihail Popescu, 1996). The human activities andnecessities accentuate slope failures, accelerate soil erosion and landslides (Valdiya, 1992).Thedevelopment of human activity has demanded the utilization of unstable slopes which often results insevere damage to the constructions and residential areas (Hermosa et al., 1996).The increasing trend of landslide occurrences will continue in future with the increased unplanned urbanization anddevelopment, continued deforestation and increased regional precipitation due to changing climatic patterns (Schuster,1996) and Ercanoglu and Gokceoglu, 2004).There is hardly any kilometer of the road left without landslides. It is estimated that everysquare kilometer in the fragile Himalaya shows up at least two landslide scars and one more is addedevery 6 kilometer square (Bhandari, et al., 1984). Severity of the problem, as measured by the losses or the damages caused or by the engineering complexity involved, varies widely from location to locationas well as time to time (Rao et al., 1996). For the last three decades frequency of landslides all over hilly areas of the country, particularly in and around developmental sites, has increased. It is thereforerequired to orient the studies in much larger perspective to identify the areas vulnerable to landslidehazards, for sustainable and risk free development. In order to cope with the increasing demand of modern industrialized India a large number of the developmental projects for communication,highways, dams, reservoirs etc has already started and are in their different stages of development outof which some are being executed in and around study area. In view of this, landslide susceptibilityanalysis of the area was initiated to explore the past, present position and future projection in respect of landslide development in the area.
2. Area of Interest and it strategic importance
Patalganga valley, the study area, between latitudes 30
o
25’ & 30
o
29’ and corresponding longitudes79
o
28’ & 79
o
35’ in North western Himalayan region of Garhwal, was once heavily damaged due todevastating landslides in 1970 (Fig. 1). The heavy rain followed by the cloudburst at the higher reachesof Patalganga generated a series of landslides along the two tributaries of Patalganga. A huge pile of debris discharged by the river Patalganga blocked the main river Alaknanda and built a 20m high dam(Kishor Kumar et al., 2005). With the breaching of dam whole Belakuchi village (Fig.2) hat waslocated at less than a kilometer away from the dam along with many other settlements in thedownstream was flushed within a few hours. The impact of this flashflood was so high that the entireSrinagar city, located about 100 km downstream along Alaknanda, was heavily inundated and wasfilled with silt and sand. Belakuchi (Fig. 2) that was once used as a halting place for thousands of  pilgrims and local people en-route to Badrinath shrine disappeared from the scene. A stretch of almost13 km of the road between Pipalkoti and Gulabkoti through Belakuchi (Fig.2) largely got washed awayand the leftover portion was severely damaged and irreparable. To restore the road link on emergency basis, the existing footpath of 350m situated above the damaged alignment was converted into analternate alignment without proper survey and mapping. This activity made the entire stable stretchinto highly landslide prone zone.
 
348 Kumar Kishor, Rahul Devrani and Sudhir Mathur 
Figure 1:
Patalganga Valley
Figure 2:
Road through the Belakuchi
3. Methodology
The scope, scale and methodology of landslide hazard and risk assessment can vary significantlydepending upon the aims and objectives (Chowdhury, 1999). LHZ mapping is being carried out usingqualitative or quantitative approaches. The qualitative methods essentially depend on expert opinion in

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