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MatMorbFact ENG 8oldal

MatMorbFact ENG 8oldal

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Published by Bocs Alapítvány

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Published by: Bocs Alapítvány on Dec 14, 2010
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02/10/2013

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C
OMPREHENSIVE
S
EXUALITY
E
DUCATION
 
AS
 
A
 
MEANS
 
TO
P
REVENT
 
MATERNAL
 
MORBIDITY
 
Introduction
In low resource countries girls and women are suffering from unnecessary maternalmortality and maternal morbitity. Giving birth remains one of the biggest health risks forwomen worldwide. Fifteen hundred women die every day while during the process of giving birth or having unsafe abortions. Teenage girls die because of health complicationsduring pregnancy and childbirth because their bodies are too young.Research indicates that around 80 percent of the half a million maternal deaths arepreventable if women have access to essential maternity and basic health care services.Educating girls and boys and young women and men on sexuality and family planning isone of the most powerful ways of breaking the poverty trap and creating a safeenvironment for maternal and newborn health. Furthermore, informing (young) peopleon sexual and reproductive health is one of the human rights recognized by mostcountries in the world.
Maternal morbidity
refers to women’s illnesses and injuries that occur caused by andduring pregnancy and childbirth or within 42 days after giving birth. They can be acute orchronic, lasting for months or even years or forever.For 120 million women who are giving birth every year 10 – 20 million women and girlsunattended pregnancy or unsafe abortion can lead to most severe consequents. . (WHO2000). They suffer from different disabilities. Some of the major causes of maternalmorbidity are unsafe abortions, obstetric fistula, peurperal infection, anaemia, infertility,ectopic pregnancy, depression and suicide. These is causing long-term physical, socialand economic problems and abandoning from her family and the society that could easilybe prevented.
Comprehensive sexuality education
Access to comprehensive sexualilty education prevents maternal mortality and morbidity.Informing young people, men and women on sexuality, contraception andreproductivity has a strong positive influence on maternal health and well being and inthe prevention of unwanted pregnancies. It enables them to make their own informedchoices about sexuality, pregnancy and family planning. To maximize it’s effectivitysexuality education should be comprehensive rather than given only from a morality(abstinence only), health or rights based perspective.Comprehensive sexuality education:
discusses all aspects of sexuality and presents all available options to help(young) people lead healthy and satisfactory sexual and reproductive lives.
Is based on (young) people’s sexual and reproductive rights
Is positive in nature
Recognizes the diversity of (young) people with regard to sexual development,identity, relationships, health and culture
Gives (young) people the necessary support and information to make healthychoices regarding sexuality and family planning All options are open to explorationand no specific option is communicated as the best.
 
The current situation of maternal morbidity
The most recent data illustrating the size of the problem are those from 2005. Onaverage, each day around 1,500 women die from complications related to pregnancy andchildbirth an estimated 536,000 women per year. Almost all – 95 per cent – of thesematernal deaths occurred in Africa - estimated at 820 maternal deaths per 100,000 livebirths - and South Asia – estimated 350 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. Indiaalone had 22 per cent of the global total.It is estimated that for every woman that dies, there are at least 20 more women whosuffer form injuries, infection and disabilities relating to pregnancy and birth. Thus, anestimated 10 million women who annually survive their pregnancies experience this.The difference in pregnancy risk between women in developing countries and their peersin the industrialized world is often termed the greatest health divide in the world. Basedon 2005 data, in Africa, the average lifetime risk of maternal death is 1 in 26, four timeshigher than in Asia and more than 300 times higher than in the industrialized countries.No other mortality rate is so unequal.As the international community has no agreed definition there are very little and varyingdata on maternal morbidity. Below are a few reasons why maternal morbidity is difficultto measure:
Some morbidities are recognised or acknowledged as an illness and others not,some are discomforting while others are seriously disabling
It can be acute or chronic
Perceptions of illnesses vary between cultures
Surveys can not always capture it as medical diagnosis is often required
Women are often too shy to speak of such personal matters so it is not reportedRegional distribution of maternal deaths, 2005 *
 
Trends in maternal health
Since 1990 the estimate of the global annual number of maternal deaths has exceeded500,000. Although the number of under-five deaths worldwide has fallen consistently –from around 13 million in1990 to 9.2 million in 2007 – maternal deaths have remainedstubbornly intractable. Limited gains have been made worldwide towards the first targetof Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5, which aims to reduce the 1990 maternalmortality ratio by three quarters by 2015; and progress on diminishing maternalmortality ratios has been virtually non-existent in sub-Saharan Africa.The trend estimates available for maternal mortality indicates the lack of sufficientprogress towards Target A of MDG 5. Given that the global maternal mortality ratio stoodat 430 per 100,000 live births in 1990, and at 400 deaths per 100,000 live births in2005, meeting the target will require more than a 70 per cent reduction between 2005and 2015.Investing in prevention is an essential and cost effective method in achieving MDG5.Preventing maternal mortality and morbidity begins with the right to correct sexual andreproductive health education. In the industrialized countries, the maternal mortalityratio remained broadly static between 1990 and 2005, at a low rate of 8 per 100,000 livebirths. Near universal access to skilled care during delivery and emergency obstetric carewhen necessary have contributed to these diminished levels of maternal mortality.

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