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Cold War.doc

Cold War.doc

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Eman Haj April 29
th
, 2009
 
Pd.: 7
th
 
A.P.U.S.H.
 
Cold War Terms
 
 Red Scare
-
 
Applied to two distinct periods of strong anti-Communism inUnited States history
 
: first from 1917 to 1920, andsecond from the late 1940s through the late 1950s. These periods were characterized by heightened suspicion of a threat toAmericancapitalism
 
from Communistsand radicals,and, particularly in the second Red Scare, allegations of widespread "infiltration" of Communists into theUS government
 
.
 
 Lend- lease
- The name of the program under which theUnited States of America supplied theUnited Kingdom
 
,the Soviet Union,China, Franceand other  Allied nationswith vast amounts of  war material  between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, military bases in  Newfoundland,Bermuda,and theBritish West Indies. 
 Pearl Harbor 
- aharbor on the island of Oahu
,Hawaii,west of  Honolulu. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy
 
 deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of theU.S. Pacific Fleet.Theattack on Pearl Harbor    by theEmpire of Japan
 
 on December 7, 1941, brought the United Statesinto World War II.
 
Yalta and Potsdam
- Yalta- Held during the war, on the surface, the Yalta conference seemed successful. The Allies agreedaProtocol of Proceedings
 
. At Potsdam,the Allies metafter the surrender of Germany (in May 1945) to decide the post-war  peace – Potsdam was the Versailles of World War II.
 Iron curtain
- the symbolic, ideological, and physical boundary dividingEurope
 
into two separate areas from the end of World War IIin1945until the end of the Cold War in 1991.
 
 Berlin Blockade/ Berlin Airlift 
 
-
 
"German hold-up" (24 June 1948 – 11 May 1949) was one of the first major internationalcrises of the Cold War . During the multinational occupation of post-World War IIGermany, theSoviet Union  blocked the Western force's railway and road access to the western sectors of Berlinthat they had been controlling. Their aim was toforce the western powers to allow the Soviet controlled regions to start supplying Berlin with food and fuel, thereby givingthem nominal control over the entire city. The Western Allies formed the
 Berlin
Airlift 
to bring supplies to the people of Berlin. The airlift to supply the German 6th Army at the battle of Stalingrad
 
 required 300 tons of food per day.
 
Containment policy
 
-
 
was a United Statespolicy uniting military, economic, and diplomatic strategies to limit the spread of  Communism,enhance America’s security and influence abroad, and to prevent a "domino effect".
George Marshall 
 
-
 
 
,and the third Secretary of 
 
 
 
 Dean Acheson
- an American statesman and lawyer; asUnited States Secretary of State
 
in the administration of PresidentHarry S. Truman
 
during 1949–1953, he played a central role in defining American foreign policy during theCold War .
 
George Kennan
 
-
 
 
, andhistorian, best known as "the father of  containment" and as a key figure in the emergence of theCold War .
 
Truman Doctrine
- a set of principles of U.S. foreign policy declared by President
 
 on March 12, 1947,with the help of George Marshall and Dean Acheson, two influential characters to Truman's biggest acts. He addressedCongress to request $400 million in aid to Greece andTurkey
 
, as well as authorization to send American economic andmilitary advisers to the two countries. It was designed primarily to overcome public and congressional opposition to UnitedStates' direct involvement in Europe.
 
 Marshall Plan
- the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding and creating a stronger foundation for the countries of Western Europe, and repelling communismafter  World War II.
 
 Berlin Airlift 
 
-
 
Brought supplies to the people of Berlin during the war.
 
 NATO
-
 
 
established by the signing of the  North Atlantic Treaty
 
on 4 April 1949. The NATO headquartersare inBrussels, Belgium
 
, and the organization constitutes a system of  collective defense whereby its member states agree to mutual defense in response to an attack by any external party.
 
 National Security Act 1947 
 
- mandated a major reorganization of the foreign policy and military establishments of the U.S.Government. The act created many of the institutions that Presidents found useful when formulating and implementingforeign policy, including the National Security Council (NSC). The Council itself included the President, Vice President,Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, and other members (such as the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency), whomet at the White House to discuss both long-term problems and more immediate national security crises.
 
 Korea
- the Soviet Union and the United Statesagreed on thesurrender and disarming of Japanese troops in Korea; the Soviet Union accepting the surrender of Japanese weaponrynorth of the 38th parallel
 
 and the United States taking thesurrender south of it. This minor decision by allied armies soon became the basis for thedivision of Koreaby the twosuperpowers
 
,exacerbated by their inability to agree on the terms of Korean independence.
 
3
8
th
 Parallel after war 
 
. The 38th parallel northhas been especially important in the recent history of Korea.Border of North and South Korea.
 
 
 MacArthur 
- U.S. general who commanded the Southwest Pacific Theatre in World War II, administered postwar Japan during the Allied occupation that followed, and led United Nations forces during the first nine months of the Korean War.
 
 Alger Hiss
 
- an American lawyer, civil servant, businessman, author, and lecturerHiss was accused of being a Sovietspy in 1948 and convicted of   perjury
 
 in connection with this charge in 1950.
 
 Ronsenbergs
 
- an early and intellectually influential member of the  Nazi Party
 
. Rosenberg was first introduced to Adolf Hitler byDietrich Eckart;he later held several important posts in the Nazi government.
 
 McCarthysim
 
- the politically motivated practice of making accusations of disloyalty, subversion, or treason without proper regard for evidence. The term specifically describes activities associated with the period in the United States known as theSecond Red Scare, lasting roughly from the late 1940s to the late 1950s and characterized by heightened fears of Communist influence on American institutions andespionage
 
bySoviet agents.
 
 John Foster Dulles
 
from 1953 to 1959. He was asignificant figure in the early Cold War  era, advocating an aggressive stance against communismaround the world.
 
 SEATO-
 
for  collective defense created by the
Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty
or the
Manila Pact
 
, which was signed on September 8, 1954. It was primarily created to block further  communistgains in Southeast Asia.
 Suez crisis
 
- Amilitary attack on Egypt by Britain,France,and Israel  beginning on 29 October 1956. The attack followed Egypt's decision of 26 July 1956 to nationalize theSuez Canal after the withdrawal of an offer by Britain and the United States to fund the building of the Aswan Dam.
 Eisenhower Doctrine
-
a country could request American economic assistance and/or aid from U.S. military forces if it was being threatened by armed aggression from another state. Eisenhower singled out the Soviet threat in his doctrine byauthorizing the commitment of U.S. forces "to secure and protect the territorial integrity and political independence of suchnations, requesting such aid against overt armed aggression from any nation controlled by international communism.
 
OPEC 1960
- acartelof twelve countries made up of Algeria
 
 
 
 
,Saudi Arabia,theUnited Arab Emirates, and Venezuela. The organization has maintained its headquarters inViennasince 1965, and hosts regular meetings among the oil ministers of its Member Countries.
 
1956 Hungarian Revolt 
 
-
 
was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the Stalinist government
 
 
and its Soviet- imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.

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