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Modules 20-22 AP..doc

Modules 20-22 AP..doc

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 Modules 20-22
20. Classical Conditioning
 I.
 Associative learning-
 
learning that certain events occur together 
 
.
 II.
Classical Conditioning-
 
a type of learning in which an organism come to associate stimuli. Aneural stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that
 
anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. Also called Pavlovian conditioning.III.
 Learning-
 
a relatively permanent change in an organism’s behavior due to experience.IV.
 Behaviorism
- the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior 
 
without reference to mental processes.A- Although few researchers today would agree that classical conditioningis a basic form of learning by which all organisms adapt to their environment.V.
Pavlov’s Experiments
 A.
Unconditioned Response (UCR) -
 
In classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurringresponse to the uncontrolled stimulus, such as salivation when food is in the mouth.B.
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) -
 
in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-naturally and automatically- triggers a response.C.
Conditioned Response (CR) -
 
a classical conditioning, the learned response to a previouslyneutral conditioned stimulus.D.
Conditioned Stimulus (CS) -
 
a classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that,after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response.E.
Conditioned-
 
learnedF.
Unconditioned 
- unlearnedVI.
Acquisition
 A.
 Acquisition-
 
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimuluswith an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditionedresponse.B.That time that elapses between presenting the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulusis not much (half a second would work)C.If the UCS occurred before the Cs, rather than after, the conditioning would likely not occur.D.Classical conditioning is biologically adaptive. It helps the organism prepare for good or badevents.VII.
Extinction & Spontaneous Recovery
 A.
 Extinction-
the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when anunconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus.B.
 Spontaneous Recovery-
 
the reappearance, after a rest period, of an extinguished conditionedresponse.
 
VIII.GeneralizationA.Generalization- the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to theconditioned stimulus to elicit similar response.B.Because of generalization, stimuli that are similar to naturally disgusting or appealing objects
 
will, by association, evoke some disgust or liking.C.Peoples emotional reactions to one stimulus generalize to similar stimuli.IX.
Discrimination
 A- Discrimination- in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between aconditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.B- Updating Pavlov UnderstandingX.
Cognitive Processes
 
A-
The more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned response.C.When two significant events occur close together in time, an animal learns
 predictability
of thesecond eventD.
 Expectancy-
 
an awareness of how likely it is that the UCS will occur.E.
 
Conditioning occurs best when the CS causes the UCS.F.Even in classical conditioning, it is not only the simple CS-UCS association but also the thoughtthat counts.XI.
Biological Predisposition
 A.Learning enables animals to adapt to their environment.B.
 
Humans seem biologically prepared to learn some things rather after eating than others.XII
- Pavlov’s legacy
 A.All researchers agree that classical conditioning is a basic form of learning.B.Classical conditioning is one way that virtually all organisms learn to adapt to their environment.C.Pavlov showed us how a process such as learning can be studied objectively.D.Pavlov’s success therefore suggested a scientific model for how the young discipline of  psychology might proceed-by isolating the elementary building blocks of complex behaviorsand studying them with objective laboratory procedures.
XIII- Applications of Classical Conditioning
 A.Countless areas of psychology, including motivation, emotion, psychological disorders, therapy,
 
and health, have applied Pavlov’s principles of classical conditioning to human health and well being.B.. Pavlov’s work also provided a basis for John Watson’s idea that human emotions and
 
 behavior, though biologically influenced, are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses.
 
 Module 21: Operant Conditioning
 I.
 Associative learning-
 
learning that certain events occur together.II.
Operant Conditioning-
 
a type of learning in which behavior strengthened if followed by areinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.III.
 Responded Behavior 
 
- behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus;
 
Skinner’s term for behavior learned through classical conditioning.IV.
Operant Behavior-
 
 behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences.V.Skinners ExperimentsA.
 
 Law of Effect 
 
- Thorndike’s principle that behaviorism followed by favorable consequences became more likely, and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become lesslikely.B.
 
Operant chamber-
 
a chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain afood or water reinforcer, with attached devices to record the animal’s rate of bar pressing or key pecking. Used in operant conditioning research.C.Experiments by Skinner and other operant researchers explored the precise conditions thatfoster efficient and enduring learning.
VI- Shaping Behavior
 A.Shaping- an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closeand closer approximations of a desired goal.B.By making rewards contingent on desired behaviors, researchers and animal trainers graduallyshape complex behaviors.C.Some experiments show that animals are remarkably capable of forming concepts; theydemonstrate this by discriminating between classes of events or objects.VIII
- Principles of reinforcement
 A.Reinforcement- any event that increases the frequency of a praise or attention.B.
 
Reinforcer- in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows.C.Most people think of reinforcements as awardsD.Anything that serves to increase behavior is reinforcement (Ex. Even yelling)E.
 
There are two types of reinforcements: positive and negativeF.Positive reinforcement strengthens a response by presenting a typically pleasurable stimulusafter a response.G.
 
. A negative Reinforcement strengthens a response by removing an aversive stimulus.a. Primary and Conditioned Reinforces1. Primary Reinforces- an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.2. Conditioned reinforcement- a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforce; also known as secondary reinforcement.

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