VIII.GeneralizationA.Generalization- the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to theconditioned stimulus to elicit similar response.B.Because of generalization, stimuli that are similar to naturally disgusting or appealing objects
will, by association, evoke some disgust or liking.C.Peoples emotional reactions to one stimulus generalize to similar stimuli.IX.
A- Discrimination- in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between aconditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.B- Updating Pavlov UnderstandingX.
The more predictable the association, the stronger the conditioned response.C.When two significant events occur close together in time, an animal learns
of thesecond eventD.
an awareness of how likely it is that the UCS will occur.E.
Conditioning occurs best when the CS causes the UCS.F.Even in classical conditioning, it is not only the simple CS-UCS association but also the thoughtthat counts.XI.
A.Learning enables animals to adapt to their environment.B.
Humans seem biologically prepared to learn some things rather after eating than others.XII
- Pavlov’s legacy
A.All researchers agree that classical conditioning is a basic form of learning.B.Classical conditioning is one way that virtually all organisms learn to adapt to their environment.C.Pavlov showed us how a process such as learning can be studied objectively.D.Pavlov’s success therefore suggested a scientific model for how the young discipline of psychology might proceed-by isolating the elementary building blocks of complex behaviorsand studying them with objective laboratory procedures.
XIII- Applications of Classical Conditioning
A.Countless areas of psychology, including motivation, emotion, psychological disorders, therapy,
and health, have applied Pavlov’s principles of classical conditioning to human health and well being.B.. Pavlov’s work also provided a basis for John Watson’s idea that human emotions and
behavior, though biologically influenced, are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses.