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Module 33-36.doc

Module 33-36.doc

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is a need or desire that serves to energize behavior and to direct it towards a goal.II.
Instinct and Evolutionary Psychology
 A.Early in the twentieth century, the influence of Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory grew, because it became fashionable to classify all sorts of behaviors as instincts. B.An
is a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and isunlearned. III.
Drives and Incentives
Drive-reduction theory
is the idea that a psychological need creates an aroused tension state(in drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy their drive, by say eating or drinking. B.With a few exceptions when the physiological need increases – so does the physiological drive(an aroused, motivated state). IV.
 A.is a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of 
the body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. B.An example of it is our body’s temperature, which works like thermostat. If our bodytemperature cools, blood vessels constrict to reserve warmth, and we are forced t put on moreclothes or seek a warmer environment. C.We are "pulled" by
 – a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivate(lure or repel) behavior. D.Our internal needs energize and direct our behavior, but our external incentives do as well. Thelure of money may energize us quite apart from any need-based drive. V.
Optimum Arousal
 A.Our biological rhythms cycle through times of arousal. B.Far from reducing a physiological need or minimizing tension, some motivated behaviorsincrease arousal. C.Curiosity drives monkeys to monkey around trying to figure out how to unlock a latch thatopens nothing, or how to open a window that allows them to see outside the room. D.Despite having our biological needs satisfied, we feel driven to experience stimulation., becausewe feel bored without it. VI.
A Hierarchy of Motives
 Some needs take priority over others. A.
Hierarchy of needs
is Abraham Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with
 physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then physiological needs to become active. Maslow’s hierarchy is somewhat arbitrary; the order of needs is not universally fixed. 
Module 34: The Physiology of Hunger
World War II Experiment 
Scientist Ancel Keys and his colleagues (1950) solicited volunteers
whom they fed just enough to maintain their weight, and the for six month they cut this foodlevel in half. A.As an effect, the men began conserving energy; they appeared listless and apathetic. Consistentwith Maslow’s idea of need hierarchy, the men became obsessed with food. II.
The Physiology of hunger
Keys’ semistarved subjects felt their hunger in response to a homeostatic system designed tomaintain normal body weight and adequate nutrition supply. B.Stomach contractions (pangs) send signals to the brain making us aware of our hunger. C.
Some diets reduce this feeling of an empty stomach by filling the stomach with indigestiblefibers that swell as they absorb water. D.When people with severe obesity undergo bypass surgery that seals off part of the stomach, the
remaining stomach then produces much less
, hunger-arousing hormone secreted by anempty stomach and appetite lessens. E.Tsang (1938) removed rats’ stomachs and attached their esophagi to their small intestines and
yet the rats still felt hungry and ate food. 
III.Body Chemistry and the Brain
is the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides a major source of energyfor body tissues. Glucose level in blood is maintained. When insulin decreases, glucose in bloodmakes us feel hungry. B-Glucose levels in our blood are monitored by the brain. Signals from the stomach, the intestines, and the liver (indicating whether glucose is
 being deposited or withdrawn) all signal the brain to motivate eating or not. Researchers located hunger controls within the
, a small but complexneural traffic intersection buried deep in the brain. A.Activity along the sides of the hypothalamus is known as
lateral hypothalamus
– brings onhunger (stimulation); destroy it, and an animal has not interest in eating. Reduction of bloodglucose stimulates
(hunger-triggering hormone). B.Lower middle of the hypothalamus – 
ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH)
depresses hunger stimulation. Destroy it and the animal eats excessively. C.
 – hormone secreted by pancreas; controls blood glucose. D.
– protein secreted by fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism andincrease hunger. E.
– hunger-triggering hormone secreted by hypothalamus.F.
– hormone secreted by empty stomch; sends " I am hungry" signals to the brain. G.
– digestive tract hormone; sends "I’m not hungry" signals to the brain. H.
Set point
 – the point at which an individual’s "weight thermostat is supposedly set. When the body falls below the weight, and increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act torestore the lost weight. I.
To maintain its set-point weight, your body adjusts not only food intake and energy output, butalso its
basal metabolic rate
– the body’s resting rate of energy expenditure. 
IV.By the end of the World War II experiment, its participants became 3/4
h of their originalweight. Some researchers doubt that the body has certain set point that drives it to hunger. They believe that slow, sustained changes in body weight, for example, alter one’s set point. Psychological factors sometimes drive our feelings of hunger. 
Psychology of Hunger
 Our eagerness to eat is indeed pushed by our physiological state, yet there is more tohunger than meets the stomach. 
Taste Preference: Biology or Culture?
 As our hunger diminishes, our eating behavior changes Body chemistry and environment influence not only when we feel hungry, but also whatwe feel hungry for – our taste preference. Carbohydrates help boost levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin, which has calmingaffect. Our preferences for sweet and salty foods are genetic, and universal, but culture affectstaste, too. We humans have a natural dislike for things that are unfamiliar to us. Countries with hot climates, in which food historically spoiled more quickly, featurerecipes with more bacteria-inhibiting spices. 
Eating Disorders
 Psychological influences on eating behavior are strikingly evident when a motive for 
abnormal thinness overwhelms normal homeostatic pressure. 
Anorexia nervosa
 – an eating disorder in which normal-weight person (usually anadolescent female) diets and becomes significantly (15 percent or more) underweight,yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve. 
Bulimia nervosa
 – an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually
high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. Unlike anorexia, bulimia is marked by weight fluctuations within or above normalranges, making the condition easy to hide. Researchers report that families of bulimia patients have a higher-than-usual incidenceof alcoholism, obesity, and depression. 

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