Module 33- MOTIVATION
is a need or desire that serves to energize behavior and to direct it towards a goal.II.
Instinct and Evolutionary Psychology
A.Early in the twentieth century, the influence of Charles Darwin’s evolutionary theory grew, because it became fashionable to classify all sorts of behaviors as instincts. B.An
is a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and isunlearned. III.
Drives and Incentives
is the idea that a psychological need creates an aroused tension state(in drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy their drive, by say eating or drinking. B.With a few exceptions when the physiological need increases – so does the physiological drive(an aroused, motivated state). IV.
A.is a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of
the body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. B.An example of it is our body’s temperature, which works like thermostat. If our bodytemperature cools, blood vessels constrict to reserve warmth, and we are forced t put on moreclothes or seek a warmer environment. C.We are "pulled" by
– a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivate(lure or repel) behavior. D.Our internal needs energize and direct our behavior, but our external incentives do as well. Thelure of money may energize us quite apart from any need-based drive. V.
A.Our biological rhythms cycle through times of arousal. B.Far from reducing a physiological need or minimizing tension, some motivated behaviorsincrease arousal. C.Curiosity drives monkeys to monkey around trying to figure out how to unlock a latch thatopens nothing, or how to open a window that allows them to see outside the room. D.Despite having our biological needs satisfied, we feel driven to experience stimulation., becausewe feel bored without it. VI.
A Hierarchy of Motives
Some needs take priority over others. A.
Hierarchy of needs
is Abraham Maslow’s pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with
physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then physiological needs to become active. Maslow’s hierarchy is somewhat arbitrary; the order of needs is not universally fixed.
Module 34: The Physiology of Hunger