We can understand how Q relates to the volumetric rate of energy dissipation in a material by considering astress
during a cycle of forced oscillation at a given frequency. The work down against internal frictionwithin a unit volume of the solid during a full cycle of oscillation is the area of the hysteresis loop (Figure 1). Fromconsideration of such a stress-strain relationship, the following is true [
Dahlen and Tromp
) is the frequency-dependent phase lag of the stress behind the strain in the loop. Thus, the more anelastic amaterial is, the more open the loop becomes.
Trajectory of stress versus strain during a harmonic cycle of forced oscillation. Dashed linesrepresent relaxed and unrelaxed perfectly elastic behavior [after
Dahlen and Tromp
, 1998].Since Q is related to the attenuation of energy, it can be written in many forms, depending on the relaxationmechanism. Several constitutive relations have been suggested to describe the recovery from deformation associated withsuch dissipative processes, including the modified Lommitz law [
, 1972] and absorption band models [
Liu et al.
,1976]. One general expression that is valid for thermoelastic, diffusion, dislocation, and viscous grain boundary relaxationmechanisms is [
is relaxation time, and
is frequency. Note that, here, Q is frequency-dependent. For a thermally-activated relaxation process, the characteristic relaxation time varies with temperature according to [
Jackson and Anderson
is a constant related to the lattice vibration frequency,
is the activation energy,
is the universal gas constant. The dominant mechanism of attenuation in solids at temperatures greater