The 80286-based IBM PC AT was the first IBM compatible personal computer capable of using dualmode operation, and providing memory protection. However, the adoption of these features by softwarevendors was delayed due to numerous bugs in their implementation on the 286, and were only widelyaccepted with the release of the Intel 80386.Classic Mac OS, and Microsoft Windows 1.0-3.11 supported only cooperative multitasking (Windows 95,98, & ME supported preemptive multitasking only when running 32-bit applications, but ran legacy 16-bitapplications using cooperative multitasking), and were very limited in their abilities to take advantage of protected memory. Application programs running on these operating systems must yield CPU time to thescheduler when they are not using it, either by default, or by calling a function.Windows NT's underlying operating system kernel which was a designed by essentially the same team asDigital Equipment Corporation's VMS, a UNIX-like operating system which provided protected modeoperation for all user programs, kernel memory protection, preemptive multi-tasking, virtual file systemsupport, and a host of other features.Classic AmigaOS and versions of Microsoft Windows from Windows 1.0 through Windows Me did notproperly track resources allocated by processes at runtime If a process had to be terminated, theresources might not be freed up for new programs until the machine was restarted.The AmigaOS did have preemptive multitasking.
Through the 1960s, many major features were pioneered in the field of operating systems. Thedevelopment of the IBM System/360 produced a family of mainframe computers available in widelydiffering capacities and price points, for which a single operating system OS/360 was planned (rather than developing ad-hoc programs for every individual model). This concept of a single OS spanning anentire product line was crucial for the success of System/360 and, in fact, IBM`s current mainframeoperating systems are distant descendants of this original system; applications written for the OS/360 canstill be run on modern machines. In the mid-70's, the MVS, the descendant of OS/360 offered the first
mplementation of using RAM as a transparent cache for disk resident data.OS/360 also pioneered a number of concepts that, in some cases, are still not seen outside of themainframe arena. For instance, in OS/360, when a program is started, the operating system keeps trackof all of the system resources that are used including storage, locks, data files, and so on. When theprocess is terminated for any reason, all of these resources are re-claimed by the operating system. Analternative CP-67 system started a whole line of operating systems focused on the concept of virtualmachines.Control Data Corporation developed the SCOPE operating system in the 1960s, for batch processing. Incooperation with the University of Minnesota, the KRONOS and later the NOS operating systems weredeveloped during the 1970s, which supported simultaneous batch and timesharing use. Like manycommercial timesharing systems, its interface was an extension of the Dartmouth BASIC operatingsystems, one of the pioneering efforts in timesharing and programming languages. In the late 1970s,Control Data and the University of Illinois developed the PLATO operating system, which used plasmapanel displays and long-distance time sharing networks. Plato was remarkably innovative for its time,featuring real-time chat, and multi-user graphical games.Burroughs Corporation introduced the B5000 in 1961 with the MCP, (Master Control Program) operatingsystem. The B5000 was a stack machine designed to exclusively support high-level languages with no