Minority Rights Group International (MRG) gratefullyacknowledges the supportofall organizations andindividuals who gave ﬁnancial and otherassistance forthisreport. Commissioning Editor: Shelina Thawer. ReportEditor:Katrina Payne.
DrIftikharH. Malikis a SeniorLecturerin International HistoryatBath Spa University College, Bath, UK. Since 1995, he hastaughtcourses on Asian history, imperialism and thecontemporary Muslim world. He has written numerous books,papers and articles. His areas ofresearch are mainly SouthAsia - with special reference to Muslim politics - andPakistan, Muslim communities in the West, and the UnitedStates ofAmerica–Muslim world relationship.
Minority Rights Group International
Minority Rights Group International (MRG) is a non-governmental organization (NGO) working to secure therights ofethnic, religious and linguistic minorities andindigenous peoples worldwide, and to promote cooperationand understanding between communities. Ouractivities arefocused on international advocacy, training, publishing andoutreach. We are guided by the needs expressed by ourworldwide partnernetworkoforganizations which representminority and indigenous peoples.MRG works with over130 organizations in nearly 60countries. Ourgoverning Council, which meets twice a year,has members from 10 differentcountries. MRG hasconsultative status with the United Nations Economic andSocial Council (ECOSOC), and is registered as a charity anda company limited by guarantee underEnglish law.Registered charity no. 282305, limited company no. 1544957.
There are no internationally agreed deﬁnitions ofwhatconstitutes a minority. MRG's workfocuses on non-dominantethnic, linguistic orreligious communities. The use oftheterm 'minority' in this reportis notbe taken as disregardingthe rightto self-identiﬁcation and the legitimate desire ofreligious communities notto be identiﬁed as minorities.© Minority Rights Group InternationalAll rights reservedMaterial from this publication may be reproduced forteaching orforothernon-commercial purposes. No partofitmay bereproduced in any form forcommercial purposes withoutthe priorexpress permission ofthe copyrightholders.Forfurtherinformation please contactMRG. A CIPcatalogue record ofthis publication is available from the British Library
1897693 69 9
by Kavita Graphics. Printed in the UKon recycled paper.
A Christian boy traumatised afterhis village, Shantinagar, was attacked. Piers Benatar/Panos Pictures.
ReligiousMinorities in Pakistan
is published by MRG as a contribution to public understanding ofthe issue which forms its subject. Thetextand views ofthe authordo notnecessarily representin every detail and in all its aspects, the collective view ofMRG.