Yeomen, on the other hand, counter – balanced the powerful craft guilds by establishing“Yeomanry’s”. The yeomanry served as a collective voice in negotiating higher wages and better working conditions from the craftsmen.
2. Emergence of vocational training program and factory schools:
Dr. W.H. Clinton, in1609, established the first recognized privately funded vocational school in New York to provideoccupational training to unskilled young people who were either unemployed or had criminalrecords.These schools were the prototype for the vocational education of the present day. Later,in the late 19
century, with the advent of industrial revolution machines began to replace thehard tools of the artisans. Scientific management principles gained importance in this period. The products produced by semi-skilled workers using machines were more in quality and quantitythan that of products produced by skilled workers in a small craft shop.Due to the growth of factories, there was demand for skilled workers, engineers,mechanics and skilled mechanics to design build and repair the machines. The supply of skilledworkers from the vocational schools was not sufficient for the growing demand for the workersfrom the factories. So to meet the growing demands, factories created factory schools thatoffered mechanical and machine training programs.
3. Training programs for semi-skilled and unskilled workers:
In the year 1913, Ford motor company came up with mass production using an assembly line to manufacture affordable to alarger segment of public. This resulted in greater demand for these cars, thereby forcingincreased production. This led Ford to design more assembly lines. This expansion requiredmore number of semi skilled workers.Another significant event which helped in the training of semi-skilled and unskilledworkers was the outbreak of the First World War. This demanded the factories to support the war effort. Charles Allen, director of training of the US shipping board, introduced a four stepinstructional training method called as “show, tell, do and check”. Later this technique wascalled “Job Instruction Training” (JIT).
4. Emergence of training as a profession:
First World War gave rise to the JIT programs for the semi and unskilled workers. With the out break of Second World War US governmentestablished Training Within Industry (TWI) service to coordinate training programmers acrossdefense related industries.In 1942, the American Society for Training Directors (ASTD) was formed to establish somestandards within the emerging training profession. Slowly, there was transformation during1960’s and 1970’s in the role performed by the professional trainers. They realized that their roleis not only to train employees but also to coach and counsel employees. This additionalenhancement of role led to the renaming of the society as American society for Training andDevelopment (ASTD).