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Training and Development

Training and Development

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Published by: q2boby on Dec 16, 2010
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Training is essential for organizational productivity. Though it is a type of education, training is job oriented. It is skill learning. Education is wider in scope and general in purpose whereas training is organization specific and practice based.Core competencies and expertise give the organizations an edge over their competitorsand training plays a vital role in developing and strengthening these competencies. Change of technology demands that employees update their knowledge, skills, abilities and technicalexpertise. Jobs are becoming more interdependent demanding high interpersonal and problemsolving skills, which can be acquired only through training.Training is a continuous and perennial activity. Human evolution itself is a part of historyof training. The Stone-age people got themselves trained to fulfill their basic needs. The metal-age people learnt the art of use of metals and cooking. Thus every page and stage of humancivilization will contain training in the backdrop. Even in the monarchical era, the kings used tosend their wards to gurukul, which is nothing but a form of residential training. Even today, inthe area of skill training we can see apprenticeship as a form of training.As Alvin Tofler puts it ‘only change is permanent’. In our century the great issue facingnot only the developed nations but also the developing nations is the problem of change andadapting to change is the main concern of present day. Change that is induced through scienceand technology development demands rapid individual and social adjustment. The above twochallenges are met mainly by manpower training and development programmes.The quest for knowledge for enlightenment is universal. So change is fundamental for the progress of a dynamic society. Every change is a challenge to be met and knowledge providesthe strength to convert these challenges into opportunities. But to do so, knowledge needs to betransformed into skills and this is a function of training. Training is an investment in ‘knowledgecapital’. This capital resource is subjected to obsolescence. It needs to be continuously updatedan expanded. Training is a continuous process and has become an important function in thedevelopment and management of human resources.
Dale S. Beach
defines training as the organizational procedure by which people learn knowledgeand / or skill for a definite purpose.
Edwin B. Flippo
defines training as the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of anemployee for doing a particular job.
Randall S. Schuler
defines training and development as “any attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to perform through learning,usually changing the employees attitude or increasing his or her skill and knowledge.” The needfor training and development is determined by the employee’s performance deficiency and iscomputed as:Training & Development need = standard performance – actual performance
defines training as “a sequence of experiences or opportunities designed to modify behavior in order to attain a stated objective”.
defines training as ‘any activity which deliberately attempts to improve a person’s skillon a job’ as opposed to education which is mainly concerned with personal development and notrelated directly to the job.
The word ‘training’ consists of eight letters, to each of which could be attributed significantmeanings in the following manner:T – Talent and Tenacity (strong determination)R – Reinforcement (something positive to be reinforced into memory and system again andagain, until it becomes a spontaneous affair)A – Awareness (with which one can easily take long strides of progress)I – Interest (which is invariably accompanied by excitement and enthusiasm) N – Novelties (the new things the like of which would sustain our interest)I – Intensity (the training instilled into the trainee’s mind must acquire experience orientedintensity) N – Nurturing (it does refer to continuous nurturing of talent, which otherwise would remaindormant)G – Grip (a fine grip over the situation solves multiple problems and enables one to acquire a practical and programmatic approach)
Evolution of Training and Development
There are many examples of effective functioning of HRD throughout the history. A glance intothe history of the profession will help to understand the HRD field in a better way in the presentday context.The evolution of HRD can be discussed in two stages: 1) a global perspective and 2) an Indian perspective.
Reasons for HRD evolution in global perspective are:
1. Emergence of apprenticeship training program and collective bargaining mechanisms;2. Emergence of vocational training program and factory schools;3. Training programs for semi-skilled and unskilled workers; and4. Emergence of training as a profession.
1. Emergence of apprenticeship training program and collective bargaining mechanisms:
During the 18
century in America, small shops were operated by skilled artisans. They produced almost all household articles like utensils, furniture, shoes, clothing etc. it was a oneman show at the beginning. Later, when the demand for the products increased, these shopowners appointed additional workers. As there were no schools available to train the workers theshop owners themselves had to educate the workers. Thus the skilled artisans, who were the shopowners, also turned into trainers and trained the trainees or apprentices who learned the craft for very little wages.Apprentices who mastered all the crafts were considered as “yeomen”. At this stage, theycould leave the shop owners and start their own shops if they wished. The growth in business ledto the development of number of yeomen by the craftsman. In order to tackle the growingnumber of yeomen master craftsmen established “craft guilds” to regulate aspects relating toworking hours, wages, and apprentice testing procedures, etc. These craft guilds also grew in power, making it still more difficult for the yeoman to establish their own craft shops.
Yeomen, on the other hand, counter – balanced the powerful craft guilds by establishing“Yeomanry’s”. The yeomanry served as a collective voice in negotiating higher wages and better working conditions from the craftsmen.
2. Emergence of vocational training program and factory schools:
Dr. W.H. Clinton, in1609, established the first recognized privately funded vocational school in New York to provideoccupational training to unskilled young people who were either unemployed or had criminalrecords.These schools were the prototype for the vocational education of the present day. Later,in the late 19
century, with the advent of industrial revolution machines began to replace thehard tools of the artisans. Scientific management principles gained importance in this period. The products produced by semi-skilled workers using machines were more in quality and quantitythan that of products produced by skilled workers in a small craft shop.Due to the growth of factories, there was demand for skilled workers, engineers,mechanics and skilled mechanics to design build and repair the machines. The supply of skilledworkers from the vocational schools was not sufficient for the growing demand for the workersfrom the factories. So to meet the growing demands, factories created factory schools thatoffered mechanical and machine training programs.
3. Training programs for semi-skilled and unskilled workers:
In the year 1913, Ford motor company came up with mass production using an assembly line to manufacture affordable to alarger segment of public. This resulted in greater demand for these cars, thereby forcingincreased production. This led Ford to design more assembly lines. This expansion requiredmore number of semi skilled workers.Another significant event which helped in the training of semi-skilled and unskilledworkers was the outbreak of the First World War. This demanded the factories to support the war effort. Charles Allen, director of training of the US shipping board, introduced a four stepinstructional training method called as “show, tell, do and check”. Later this technique wascalled “Job Instruction Training” (JIT).
4. Emergence of training as a profession:
First World War gave rise to the JIT programs for the semi and unskilled workers. With the out break of Second World War US governmentestablished Training Within Industry (TWI) service to coordinate training programmers acrossdefense related industries.In 1942, the American Society for Training Directors (ASTD) was formed to establish somestandards within the emerging training profession. Slowly, there was transformation during1960’s and 1970’s in the role performed by the professional trainers. They realized that their roleis not only to train employees but also to coach and counsel employees. This additionalenhancement of role led to the renaming of the society as American society for Training andDevelopment (ASTD).

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