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Electromagnetic Engineering Fundamentals

Electromagnetic Engineering Fundamentals

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Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 10/22/2000 Page 1 of 13
ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING EE325
 
INDEX
Ampere's circuital law.....11Ampere's law...................6angstrom..........................2Avogadro's number...........2B Ampere's circuital law11Biot-Savart law...............11Boltzmann's constant........2capacitance...................7, 8between coaxial cylinders................................7between concentricspheres....................7between parallel plates.7between two conductors7characteristic impedance..2complex conjugate............1complex notation..............1conductance.....................8conductivity.....................8semiconductor..............8conservative field law.......6constants..........................2continuity equation...........8coordinate systems..........10coordinate transformations10coulomb...........................1Coulomb's law..................7cross product...................10curl..................................9current.............................8current density.................7D flux density.................6del...................................8divergence........................9dot product.......................9duality of J and D.............8E electric field.................5electric field.....................5electron mass...................2electron volt.....................2electrostaticforce............................5potential......................5electrostatics....................5elipse...............................8Faraday's law..............6, 12flux density......................6forceelectrostatic.................5magnetic.....................11Gauss' law........................6geometry..........................8grad operator....................8H magnetic field intensity12impedanceshort-circuit.................2induced voltagedue to changing magneticfield........................13due to conductor motion13Faraday's law..............12slider problem.............13inductance.......................12J current density..............7 joule................................2Laplacian.........................9Lenz's law.......................12light, speed of..................2line impedance.................3linkage............................12magnetic energy..............12magnetic field.................11at the center of a circularwire........................11central axis of a solenoid...............................11due to a finite straightconductor................11due to an infinite straightconductor................11magnetic field intensity...12magnetic flux..................12magnetic force.................11magnetization..................13matching transformerinline – reactive load....3inline – resistive load...3mathematics.....................8Maxwell's equations.........6mutual inductance...........12nabla operator..................8permeability.....................2permittivity......................2phase constant..................2Planck's constant..............2Poisson's equation............6potential energy................7powerwith phasor notation.....5reactance..........................3reflection coefficient.........2resistance.........................8Rydberg constant..............2self-inductance................12series stub........................4shunt stub........................4single-stub tuning.............4Smith chart......................4Smith charts.....................4space derivative...............8sphere..............................8standing wave ratio..........4static magnetic field........11stub length.......................4surface charge density......6time average power..........5vector differential equation8volume energy density......7waveforward-traveling.........5wave equation..................2wavelength.......................2W
e
potential energy.........7
w
e
volume energy density7
 X 
reactance.....................3
 Z 
in
line impedance...........3
Φ
electrostaticpotential......................5
Γ 
reflection coefficient....2
ΨΨ
magnetic flux.............12
λ
wavelength...................2
ρ
s
surface charge density.6
σ
conductivity.................8
del...............................8
× curl...........................9
· divergence................9
2
Laplacian...................9
COULOMB
[
C
]
A unit of electrical charge equal to one amp second,the charge on 6.21×10
18
electrons, or one joule pervolt.
COMPLEX NOTATION
 
)(
baae
 jb
=
 where
b
may be in radians or degrees (if noted).
COMPLEX CONJUGATES
 
The complex conjugate of a number is simply thatnumber with the sign changed on the imaginary part.This applies to both
rectangular and polar notation
.When conjugates are multiplied, the result is a scalar.
22
))((
ba jba jba
+=+
 
2
))((
A B A B A
=°°
 Other
properties of conjugates
:
*)*****()*(
 E  D B A DE  ABC 
++=++
 
 jB jB
ee
+
=
)*(
 
 
Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 10/22/2000 Page 2 of 13
TRANSMISSION LINES
Γ Γ 
 L
REFLECTION COEFFICIENT
[
V/V
]
The
reflection coefficient
is a value from –1 to +1which, when multiplied by the wave voltage,determines the amount of voltage reflected at oneend of the transmission line.
00
 Z  Z  Z  Z e
 L L j L
+=ρ=Γ 
ψ 
and
 L L L
 Z 
Γ Γ +=
11
0
 where:
 L
 Z 
is the
load impedance
 L
Γ 
is the
load reflection coefficient
ρ
is the
reflection coefficient magnitude
ψ 
is the
reflection coefficient phase
 L Z 
=
0
is the
characteristic impedance
 
THE COMPLEX WAVE EQUATION
The
complex wave equation
is applicable when theexcitation is sinusoidal and the circuit is under steadystate conditions.
)()(
222
 z z z
β=
 where
2
 LC 
πβ = ω =λ
is the
phase constant
 The
complex wave equation 
 
above is a second-orderordinary differential equation commonly found in theanalysis of physical systems. The general solution is:
 z j z j
ee z
β+β+
+=
)(
 where
 z j
e
β
and
 z j
e
β+
represent wave propagationin the
+
 z
and
 z
directions respectively.The same equation applies to current:
 z j z j
e I e I  z I 
β+β+
+=
)(
 and
0
)(
 Z ee  z I 
 z j z j
β+β+
+=
 where
0
 / 
 Z L
=
is the
characteristic impedance
 of the line. These equations represent the voltageand current
phasors
.
SHORT-CIRCUIT IMPEDANCE
[
]
( )
l jZ  Z 
sc
β=
tan
0
 where:
0
 Z 
is the
characteristic impedance
λπ=ω=β
2
 LC 
is the
phase constant
l
is the length of the line [
m
]
CONSTANTS
Avogadro’s number[molecules/mole]
23
1002.6
×=
 A
 N 
 Boltzmann’s constant
23
1038.1
×=
 
J/K
 
5
1062.8
×=
 
eV/K
 Elementary charge
19
1060.1
×=
q
 
C
 Electron mass
310
1011.9
×=
m
 
kg
 Permittivity of free space
120
1085.8
×=ε
 
F/m
 Permeability constant
70
104
×π=µ
 
H/m
 Planck’s constant
34
1063.6
×=
h
 
J-s
 
15
1014.4
×=
 
cV-s
 Rydberg constant
678,109
=
 R
 
cm
-1
 
kT
@ room temperature
0259.0
=
kT 
 
eV
 Speed of light
8
10998.2
×=
c
 
m/s
 1
Å
(angstrom) 10
-8
cm = 10
-10
 
m
 1
µ
m
(micron) 10
-4
 
cm
 1
nm
= 10
Å
= 10
-7
 
cm
 1
eV
= 1.6 × 10
-19
 
J1 V = 1 J/C 1 N/C = 1 V/m 1 J = 1 N·m = 1V
 
λλ
WAVELENGTH
[
m
]
 f v
 p
=λ
 
v
 p
=
velocity of propagation (2.998×10
8
m/sfor a line in air)
 f 
=
frequency [
Hz
]
 
 
Tom Penick tom@tomzap.com www.teicontrols.com/notes 10/22/2000 Page 3 of 13
¼-WAVELENGTH INLINE MATCHINGTRANSFORMER – resistive load
For use with a purely resistive load that does not match theline impedance. The load is matched to the line byinserting a ¼-wavelength segment having a characteristicimpedance
 Z 
Q
.
 Z 
0
Q
λ
 /4
 R
 L
 
 LQ
R Z  Z 
0
=
 
 Z 
0
=
characteristic impedance of thetransmission line
[
]
λ
=
wavelength
[
meters
]
 R
 L
=
resistance of the load
[
]
 Z 
Q
=
characteristic impedance of the¼-wave matching segment [
]
 
¼-WAVELENGTH INLINE MATCHINGTRANSFORMER – reactive load
For use with a reactive load. The load is matched to theline by inserting a ¼-wavelength segment having acharacteristic impedance
 Z 
Q
at a distance
l
 
from the load.
l
 is the length of transmission line required to produce thefirst voltage maximum—closest to the load. If the load isinductive, the first voltage maximum will be closer than thefirst voltage minimum, i.e. within ½ wavelength.
0
 Z 
0
 Z 
λ
 /4
 Z 
Q
l Z 
in L
 Z 
 First find the reflection coefficient in order to determine thevalue of
ψ 
. Then find the length
l
of the line that willconvert the load to a pure resistance, i.e. produces the firstvoltage maximum. Find this resistance (
 Z 
in
) using the lineimpedance formula. Then determine the impedance
 Z 
Q
ofthe ¼-wavelength segment that will match the load to theline.
 
00
 Z  Z  Z  Z e
 L L j L
+=ρ=Γ 
ψ 
 
i.e.
ψ ρ=Γ 
 L
 
(radians)
 
πψλ=βψ =
42
l
 
l jZ  Z l jZ  Z  Z  Z 
 L Lin
β+β+=
tantan
000
 
inQ
 Z  Z 
0
=
 
Γ 
 L
is the load reflectioncoefficient
 
ψ 
=
phase of the reflectioncoefficient
[
radians
]
ρ
=
magnitude of thereflection coefficient
[
]
 Z 
0
=
characteristicimpedance
[
]
λπ=β
 / 2
 
λ
=
v
 p
 / 
 f 
 
wavelength
[
m
]
 Z 
in
=
impedance (resistive)of the load combinedwith the
l
segment
[
]
 Z 
Q
=
line impedance of the¼-wave matchingsegment [
]
 
 X 
REACTANCE
[
]
 
 j X 
ω=
 
 L j X 
 L
ω=
 
 X 
=
reactance
[
]
 X 
 L
=
reactance
[
]
 j
=
1
 
ω
 
=
 
frequency [
radians
]
=
capacitance
[
F
]
 L
=
inductance
[
H
]
 Z
in
LINE IMPEDANCE
[
]
 
l jZ  Z l jZ  Z  Z  Z 
 L Lin
β+β+=
tantan
000
 
l
=
distance from load
[
m
]
 j
=
1
 
β
 
=
 
phase constant
 Z 
0
=
characteristicimpedance
[
]
 Z 
 L
=
load impedance
[
]
The
line impedance
of a ¼-wavelength line is the inverseof the load impedance.
Impedance is a real value when its magnitude ismaximum or minimum.
ρρ+==
11
00max
S Z  Z 
 
ρ+ρ==
11
00min
S Z  Z 
 
 Z 
0
=
characteristicimpedance
[
]
S
=
standing wave ratio
 
ρ
 
=
magnitude of thereflection coefficient

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