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Solid State Physics Exam Questions and Answers

Solid State Physics Exam Questions and Answers

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Published by firtemin
There are 5 different questions and corresponding answers in the main field of solid state physics.
There are 5 different questions and corresponding answers in the main field of solid state physics.

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Published by: firtemin on Dec 16, 2010
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05/01/2013

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ESS 4300 Introduction to Solid State Physics
Instructor: Pai-Yi Hsiao, Ph.D. Final exam 20 June 2005 (130 pts)1.(a) In the chapter 5 of the text book, Kittel wrote The Einstein model,however, is often used to approximate the optical phonon part of phononspectrum. . Explain why the Einstein model can be used to approximateoptical phonon. (4 pts)(b) In the study of phonon collisions, collision process can becharacterized by two different ways, (1) normal process and (2) umklapp process. Give the definition of the two processes. (10 pts) What is theimportance of the umklapp process in thermal transport phenomena. (4 pts)2.(a) Explain the term Fermi energy . (5 pts)(b) Find the expression
D
( ) for the number of orbitals per unit energyrange, so-called density of states, for free electron gas under periodic boundary condition. (5 pts)(c) The probability that an orbital at energy is occupied in an idealFermi gas in thermal equilibrium at temperature
is given byFermi-Dirac distribution:
1/)exp 1)(
 f  
 B
where thechemical potential depends on temperature and is often called Fermilevel in solid state physics. Explain that at
=0 the Fermi level is equalto Fermi energy. (3 pts) Draw the plot of 
D
( )
 f  
( ) versus for the case
=0 and the case
0. Shadow the filled electron orbitals under thecurves of the plots for the above two cases. (4 pts)(d) When the system is heated from absolute zero to
(where 0<
 B
<< ), which part of electrons in orbitals can be excited thermally? (3 pts)What is the magnitude of the energy gains for such an excited electron?(3 pts) Estimate the number of electrons that would be thermally excited.(3 pts) Estimate the total electronic thermal kinetic energy at
0. (3 pts)Describe how electronic heat capacity behaves at low temperature. (3 pts)3.(a) Sketch the band structure of a (pure) semiconductor. (5 pts)
 
Describe what happens to the band structure if impurities, such as donorsor acceptors, of very low concentration are added to the specimen. (5 pts)(b) Give your argument that the product of the concentration
n
of electrons and the concentration
p
of holes for a semiconductor (doped or not) in thermal equilibrium is constant. This constant depends ontemperature. (5 pts)(c) For a
n
-type semiconductor, the logarithmic of concentration of themajor carrier as a function of inverse of temperature is plotted in thefigure. Give your explanation why ln
n
(
) can be characterized by threeregions. (9 pts) Give your estimation for the temperature boundary between the freezing-out and the extrinsic regions and that for the boundary between the extrinsic and intrinsic regions. (6 pts)4.(a) In independent electron approximation, interaction between electronsin crystals is neglected. Many-electron problems can be, therefore,reduced to one-electron problems. The solution of the single electronSchrodinger equation:
)(2
22
m H 
, where the potential
)(
is periodic for all
R
in a Bravais lattice, should satisfy Bloch stheory. What is Bloch s theory? (5 pts) Derive central equation of Bloch s theory. (5 pts)(b) Suppose that the periodic potential
)(
can be decomposed into
 
Fourier sum
 K  K 
 K i
)exp()(
where the summation runs over allreciprocal lattice vectors
. Applying the central equation andtwo-components approximation , prove that close to the Brillouin zone boundary
G
21
, the energy of the Bloch electron appears two-bandstructures:
22
)(41)(21
GGG
where
m
2
22
. (5 pts) Define
G
21
. Note that may not be parallel to
G
. Findhow the two branches of energy behave as is small. (5 pts) Show thaton the zone boundary, the energy gap between two energy bands is
G
2
.(5 pts)5.(a) Give the definition of Fermi surface . (5 pts)(b) The Fermi surface for a free-electron system is plot in the followingfigure. Sketch the Fermi surface for the same system but the electronsfeel a weak periodic potential derived from the crystal lattice. Explainyour answer. (5 pts)(c) Suppose that in three-dimensional reciprocal space, the Fermi surfaceof nearly free electrons cuts slightly the Brillouin zone boundary
21
(see figure). Applying the result in Prob 4.(b), show that the areadifference of Fermi surface, cut by the zone boundary, inside and outsidethe plane is
 K 
m
22122
4)(
. (5 pts)

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