remains of granaries, burial tombs, drills for stones and copper, etc., found in the area near present day Balochistan in Pakistan. The Indus Valley Civilization, which saw complex societalstructures, have known to exist since 4000 BC, with the major cities being Harappa andMohenjo-daro. Both these cities have been discovered to be large cities with many structures of great magnitude inside city limits. The decimal fraction system is one of the gifts of the IndusValley Civilization to the modern day world. Excavation of the sites that are believed to be a partof the civilization have been on since 1920 and the most recent discovery was in 1999.
Along with being a contender for the title of the oldest civilization in the world, China is alreadyheralded as the world's oldest continuous civilization. Pre-civilized settlement relics dating back to 7000 BC have been found in China. In fact, in some cases, the date variance ranges between9000 BC and 5500 B. There is evidence of agricultural practice, pottery, craft work and evenanimal husbandry. The civilization can be traced back to the establishment of city states in theYellow River Valley around 2200 BC. But this claim is disputed with the first dynasty that isarchaeologically definable being traced to the Shang Dynasty of Ancient Chinawhich started itsreign somewhere around 1750 BC. There is very little verifiable data about earlier settlements inthe area due to the lack of written records or any such documents.
Andean South America and Mesoamerica
In the Americas, the oldest civilizations were located in South America andMesoamerica. The oldest Mesoamerican civilization was the Olmec Civilization whichwas established sometime around 1200 BC, but settlements have been traced backto 5100 BC, due to records of maize cultivation from then. Some of the main citiesthat were established under the Olmec rule were San Lorenzo and La Venta, whichlike other cities, are said to have had giant statues of the then Emperor. In SouthAmerica, the oldest civilization was the Norte Chico that was a group of connectedsettlements, with huge cities at Aspero and Caral.It is difficult to answer a question like what is the oldest civilization and how old is itbecause there are no definite records or dating methods that can give us an exacttime period for when these civilizations existed. But these five civilizations were thepredecessors to our modern day countries and geographical demarcations.Regardless of which of these is the oldest civilization in the world, some of the mostimportant inventions and discoveries, like farming or pottery can be credited tothese civilizations.
What are Some of the Oldest Countries in the World
The list given below mentions the approximate date from which the country came into existenceas mentioned in historical literature. You may also like to know on theoldest city in the worldinaddition to the oldest countries.
3200BCMesopotamia(Present dayIran)The whole of present day western Iran came under the influence of theProto-Elamite's and they had their capital at Susa. This dynasty had agreat influence on other dynasties which followed and over time the