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Table Of Contents

First and second quantization
1.1 First quantization, single-particle systems
1.2 First quantization, many-particle systems
1.2.1 Permutation symmetry and indistinguishability
1.2.2 The single-particle states as basis states
1.2.3 Operators in first quantization
1.3 Second quantization, basic concepts
1.3.1 The occupation number representation
1.3.2 The boson creation and annihilation operators
1.3.3 The fermion creation and annihilation operators
1.3.4 The general form for second quantization operators
1.3.5 Change of basis in second quantization
1.3.6 Quantum field operators and their Fourier transforms
1.4 Second quantization, specific operators
1.4.1 The harmonic oscillator in second quantization
1.4.2 The electromagnetic field in second quantization
1.4.4 The Coulomb interaction in second quantization
1.4.5 Basis states for systems with different kinds of particles
1.5. SECOND QUANTIZATION AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS 25
1.5 Second quantization and statistical mechanics
1.5.1 The distribution function for non-interacting fermions
1.5.2 Distribution functions for non-interacting bosons
1.6 Summary and outlook
The electron gas
2.1 The non-interacting electron gas
2.1.1 Bloch theory of electrons in a static ion lattice
2.1.2 Non-interacting electrons in the jellium model
2.1.3 Non-interacting electrons at finite temperature
2.2 Electron interactions in perturbation theory
2.3.1 3D electron gases: metals and semiconductors
2.3.2 2D electron gases: GaAs/Ga1−xAlxAs heterostructures
2.3.3 1D electron gases: carbon nanotubes
2.3.4 0D electron gases: quantum dots
Phonons; coupling to electrons
3.1 Jellium oscillations and Einstein phonons
3.2. ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTION AND THE SOUND VELOCITY 53
3.2 Electron-phonon interaction and the sound velocity
3.3 Lattice vibrations and phonons in 1D
3.4 Acoustical and optical phonons in 3D
3.8 Summary and outlook
Mean field theory
4.1 The art of mean field theory
4.2 Hartree–Fock approximation
4.3 Broken symmetry
4.4 Ferromagnetism
4.4.1 The Heisenberg model of ionic ferromagnets
4.4.2 The Stoner model of metallic ferromagnets
4.5 Superconductivity
4.5.1 Breaking of global gauge symmetry and its consequences
4.5.2 Microscopic theory
4.6 Summary and outlook
Time evolution pictures
5.1 The Schr¨odinger picture
5.2 The Heisenberg picture
5.3 The interaction picture
5.4 Time-evolution in linear response
5.5 Time dependent creation and annihilation operators
5.6 Summary and outlook
6.3 Kubo formula for conductance
6.4 Kubo formula for the dielectric function
6.4.1 Dielectric function for translation-invariant system
6.4.2 Relation between dielectric function and conductivity
6.5 Summary and outlook
Transport in mesoscopic systems
7.1 The S-matrix and scattering states
7.1.1 Unitarity of the S-matrix
7.1.2 Time-reversal symmetry
7.2 Conductance and transmission coefficients
7.2.1 The Landauer-B¨uttiker formula, heuristic derivation
7.2.2 The Landauer-B¨uttiker formula, linear response derivation
7.3 Electron wave guides
7.3.1 Quantum point contact and conductance quantization
7.3.2 Aharonov-Bohm effect
7.4 Disordered mesoscopic systems
7.4.1 Statistics of quantum conductance, random matrix theory
7.4.2 Weak localization in mesoscopic systems
7.4.3 Universal conductance fluctuations
7.5 Summary and outlook
Green’s functions
8.1 “Classical” Green’s functions
8.2 Green’s function for the one-particle Schr¨odinger equa-
8.3. SINGLE-PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTIONS OF MANY-BODY SYSTEMS 131
8.3 Single-particle Green’s functions of many-body systems
8.3.1 Green’s function of translation-invariant systems
8.3.2 Green’s function of free electrons
8.3.3 The Lehmann representation
8.3.4 The spectral function
8.3.5 Broadening of the spectral function
8.4. MEASURING THE SINGLE-PARTICLE SPECTRAL FUNCTION 137
8.4 Measuring the single-particle spectral function
8.4.1 Tunneling spectroscopy
8.4.2 Optical spectroscopy
8.5 Two-particle correlation functions of many-body sys-
8.6 Summary and outlook
Equation of motion theory
9.1 The single-particle Green’s function
9.2. ANDERSON’S MODEL FOR MAGNETIC IMPURITIES 147
9.1.1 Non-interacting particles
9.2 Anderson’s model for magnetic impurities
9.2.1 The equation of motion for the Anderson model
9.2.2 Mean-field approximation for the Anderson model
9.2.3 Solving the Anderson model and comparison with experiments
9.3. THE TWO-PARTICLE CORRELATION FUNCTION 153
9.2.4 Coulomb blockade and the Anderson model
9.2.5 Further correlations in the Anderson model: Kondo effect
9.3 The two-particle correlation function
9.3.1 The Random Phase Approximation (RPA)
9.4 Summary and outlook
Imaginary time Green’s functions
10.1 Definitions of Matsubara Green’s functions
10.2. CONNECTION BETWEEN MATSUBARA AND RETARDED FUNCTIONS161
10.1.1 Fourier transform of Matsubara Green’s functions
10.2 Connection between Matsubara and retarded functions
10.2.1 Advanced functions
10.3 Single-particle Matsubara Green’s function
10.3.1 Matsubara Green’s function for non-interacting particles
10.4. EVALUATION OF MATSUBARA SUMS 165
10.4 Evaluation of Matsubara sums
10.4.1 Summations over functions with simple poles
10.4.2 Summations over functions with known branch cuts
10.5 Equation of motion
10.6 Wick’s theorem
10.7. EXAMPLE: POLARIZABILITY OF FREE ELECTRONS 173
10.7 Example: polarizability of free electrons
11.2 Elastic scattering and Matsubara frequencies
11.3. RANDOM IMPURITIES IN DISORDERED METALS 181
11.3 Random impurities in disordered metals
11.3.1 Feynman diagrams for the impurity scattering
11.4 Impurity self-average
11.5.4 The self-consistent Born approximation and beyond
11.6 Summary and outlook
12.1 The perturbation series for G
12.2 infinite perturbation series!Matsubara Green’s func-
12.3. THE FEYNMAN RULES FOR PAIR INTERACTIONS 201
12.3 The Feynman rules for pair interactions
12.3.1 Feynman rules for the denominator of G(b, a)
12.3.2 Feynman rules for the numerator of G(b, a)
12.3.3 The cancellation of disconnected Feynman diagrams
12.4 Self-energy and Dyson’s equation
12.5 The Feynman rules in Fourier space
12.6 Examples of how to evaluate Feynman diagrams
12.6.1 The Hartree self-energy diagram
12.6.2 The Fock self-energy diagram
12.6.3 The pair-bubble self-energy diagram
12.7 Summary and outlook
The interacting electron gas
13.1 The self-energy in the random phase approximation
13.1.1 The density dependence of self-energy diagrams
13.1.2 The divergence number of self-energy diagrams
13.1.3 RPA resummation of the self-energy
13.2. THE RENORMALIZED COULOMB INTERACTION IN RPA 217
13.2 The renormalized Coulomb interaction in RPA
13.2.1 Calculation of the pair-bubble
13.2.2 The electron-hole pair interpretation of RPA
13.3 The ground state energy of the electron gas
13.4. THE DIELECTRIC FUNCTION AND SCREENING 223
13.4 The dielectric function and screening
13.5. PLASMA OSCILLATIONS AND LANDAU DAMPING 227
13.5 Plasma oscillations and Landau damping
13.5.1 Plasma oscillations and plasmons
13.5.2 Landau damping
13.6 Summary and outlook
Fermi liquid theory
14.1 Adiabatic continuity
14.1.1 The quasiparticle concept and conserved quantities
14.2. SEMI-CLASSICAL TREATMENT OF SCREENING AND PLASMONS 237
14.2 Semi-classical treatment of screening and plasmons
14.2.1 Static screening
14.2.2 Dynamical screening
14.3 Semi-classical transport equation
14.3.1 Finite life time of the quasiparticles
14.4 Microscopic basis of the Fermi liquid theory
14.4.1 Renormalization of the single particle Green’s function
14.4.2 Imaginary part of the single particle Green’s function
14.4.3 Mass renormalization?
14.5 Outlook and summary
15.1 Vertex corrections and dressed Green’s functions
15.2. THE CONDUCTIVITY IN TERMS OF A GENERAL VERTEX FUNCTION259
15.2 The conductivity in terms of a general vertex function
15.3 The conductivity in the first Born approximation
15.4 The weak localization correction to the conductivity
15.5. COMBINED RPA AND BORN APPROXIMATION 273
15.5 Combined RPA and Born approximation
Green’s functions and phonons
16.1 The Green’s function for free phonons
16.2 Electron-phonon interaction and Feynman diagrams
16.3. COMBINING COULOMB AND ELECTRON-PHONON INTERACTIONS 279
16.3 Combining Coulomb and electron-phonon interactions
16.3.1 Migdal’s theorem
16.3.2 Jellium phonons and the effective electron-electron interaction
16.4. PHONON RENORMALIZATION BY ELECTRON SCREENING IN RPA 281
16.4 Phonon renormalization by electron screening in RPA
16.5 The Cooper instability and Feynman diagrams
A.1 Continuous functions in a finite region
A.2 Continuous functions in an infinite region
A.3 Time and frequency Fourier transforms
A.4 Some useful rules
A.5 Translation invariant systems
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