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Table Of Contents

1. Introduction
1.1 Problem formulation
1.2 Research questions
1.3 Scope and delimitations
1.4 Major assumptions
1.5 Outline of the report
2. Background
2.1 A survey of the current standing of low-energy buildings in Sweden
2.2 What is a passive house?
2.2.1 The Passive house technique
2.3 Local housing company and the Lambohov area
2.3.1 Description of the passive houses in Lambohov
2.3.2 The energy system of the City of Linköping
3. Theory
3.1 Systems perspective and system boundaries
3.2 Energy balance in buildings
3.3 Introduction of new technology
3.4 Household activities and time-use data
3.5 Thermal loads from household activities
3.5.1 Time-use for electricity consumption patterns
3.6 Thermal comfort
3.6.1 Predicted Mean Vote (PMV)
3.6.2 Activity and clothing
3.6.3 Local thermal discomfort
3.6.4 Limitations of applying a Generalized Comfort criteria
4. Method
4.1 Case study
4.2 Interviews
4.3 Field experiments of household activity based on time-use
4.4 Measurements of Thermal comfort
4.4.1 Measurements of thermal indoor climate
4.5 Computer simulation study with IDA Indoor climate and energy (ICE)
4.6 MODEST optimisation study
5. Household level
5.1 The tenants
5.1.1 Stångåstaden’s expectations
5.1.2 The tenants’ expectations
5.2 Domestic appliances
5.2.1 Pre-installed appliances
5.2.2 The use of appliances
5.3 Finding the thermal loads of household activities
5.4 Thermal zones
5.5 Discussion household level
6 The building level
6.1 The building envelopes of the houses in Lambohov
6.2 Building specific properties affecting thermal indoor climate
6.2.1 Mean radiant temperature (Trm) difference
6.2.2 Building specific energy use
6.3 Field measurements of thermal comfort
6.3.1 Results without any activity
6.3.2 Applying activity pattern week day
6.4.1 Input for the computer simulations
6.4.2 One year simulation with household activities based on time-use
6.4.3 Static simulations
6.4.4 Energy performance evaluation of the building envelope
6.5 Discussion building level
7. The Local Level
7.1 The housing company perspective
7.1.1 Environment and sustainability
7.1.2 How to build in a sustainable way
7.1.3 Business or sustainability?
7.1.4 Passive houses as rented apartments
7.2 Perspective of the municipality of Linköping
7.3 Energy system optimisations
7.3.1 Aim of the optimisations
7.3.2 The MODEST model of the Linköping district heating system
7.3.3 Scenarios
7.3.4 Results from the optimisation – Reference Case 1
7.3.5 Results - Scenario 1
7.3.6 Results - Scenario 2
7.4 Discussion local level
8 Discussion and conclusions
8.2 Further work
References
Unprinted material
Appendix A
PMV and PPD equation
Standard levels of activity and clothing
Appendix B
Experiment 1. Reference case
Experiment 2. Applying heating pattern for weekday
Results from weekday pattern
Experiment 3. Applying heating pattern for weekend-day
Results from weekend-day pattern
Appendix C
Interview guide
Appendix D
Interview guide - households
Appendix E
The Building envelope in the Lambohov houses
Results from the computer simulations
Appendix F Measurement accuracy
Electricity measurement accuracy
Indoor climate measurement accuracy
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Energy Passive Houses

Energy Passive Houses

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Published by: Pasavi Ratchapongsirikul on Dec 18, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/09/2012

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