ABSTRACT ABSTRACT ABSTRACT
Multi-Carrier Modulation is a technique for data-transmissionby dividing a high-bit rate data stream to several parallel low bit ratedata streams and using these low bit-rate data streams to modulateseveralcarriers.Multi-Carrier Transmission has a lot of useful properties suchas delay-spread tolerance and spectrum efficiency that encourage their useinuntetheredbroadbandcommunications.Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing OFDM:- is a multi-carrier modulation technique with densely spaced sub-carriers that hasgained a lot of popularity among the broadband community in the last fewyears.IthasfoundimmenseapplicationsincommunicationsystemsOFDM is a special case of multi-carrier transmission, where asingle data stream is transmitted over a number of lower rate Sub-carriers.In July 1998, the IEEE standardization group decided to select OFDM as the basis for their new 5-GHz standard, targeting a range of data stream from 6 up to 54 Mbps. This new standard is the first one touse OFDM in packet-based communications, while the use of OFDM until nowwaslimitedtocontinuoustransmission.Two of the fundamental advantages of OFDM are its robustnessagainst channel dispersion and its ease of phase and channel estimationin a time-varying environment. With the advancement of powerful silicon DSP technology, OFDM has triumphed in a broad range of applications in the RF domain from digital audio/video broadcasting(DAB/DVB) to wireless local area networks (LANs). However, OFDM alsohas intrinsic disadvantages, such as high peak-to-average power ratio(PAPR)andsensitivitytofrequencyandphasenoise.OFDM is a special class of MCM system that has only recently gained attention in the optical communication community, especially after being proposed the attractive long-haul transmission format incoherentdetectionanddirectdetection.