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English Grammar

English Grammar

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English Grammar
English Grammar

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Published by: ajayakomna on Dec 19, 2010
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1
 
John Dow 
English Grammar in English
 
 
2
1 An Introduction to Word classes ............................. 5
 
1.1 Criteria for Word Classes ........................................................................................... 5
 
1.1.1 Meaning .......................................................................................................... 6
 
1.1.2 The form or `shape' of a word ........................................................................... 6
 
1.1.3 The position or `environment' of a word in a sentence ......................................... 7
 
1.2 Open and Closed Word Classes .................................................................................. 8
 
2 Nouns ................................................................. 9
 
2.1 Characteristics of Nouns ............................................................................................ 9
 
2.2 Common and Proper Nouns ...................................................................................... 11
 
2.3 Count and Non-count Nouns ..................................................................................... 12
 
2.4 Pronouns ................................................................................................................ 12
 
2.5 Other Types of Pronoun ........................................................................................... 14
 
2.6 Numerals ............................................................................................................... 15
 
2.7 The Gender of Nouns ............................................................................................... 16
 
3 Determiners ...................................................... 17
 
3.1 Numerals and Determiners ....................................................................................... 18
 
3.2 Pronouns and Determiners ....................................................................................... 19
 
3.3 The Ordering of Determiners .................................................................................... 20
 
3.4 Predeterminers ....................................................................................................... 20
 
3.5 Central Determiners ................................................................................................ 21
 
3.6 Postdeterminers ...................................................................................................... 21
 
4 Verbs ............................................................... 22
 
4.1 The Base Form ........................................................................................................ 22
 
4.2 Past and Present Forms ........................................................................................... 23
 
4.3 The Infinitive Form .................................................................................................. 24
 
4.4 More Verb Forms:
-ing
and
-ed 
................................................................................. 25
 
4.5 Finite and Nonfinite Verbs ........................................................................................ 26
 
4.6 Auxiliary Verbs ........................................................................................................ 26
 
4.7 Auxiliary Verb Types ................................................................................................ 26
 
4.8 The NICE Properties of Auxiliaries.............................................................................. 29
 
4.9 Semi-auxiliaries ...................................................................................................... 30
 
4.10 Tense and Aspect .................................................................................................. 31
 
4.11 Voice ................................................................................................................... 32
 
5 Adjectives ......................................................... 33
 
5.1 Characteristics of Adjectives ..................................................................................... 34
 
5.2 Attributive and Predicative Adjectives ........................................................................ 35
 
5.3 Inherent and Non-inherent Adjectives ........................................................................ 36
 
5.4 Stative and Dynamic Adjectives ................................................................................ 37
 
 
35.5 Nominal Adjectives .................................................................................................. 38
 
5.6 Adjectives and Nouns .............................................................................................. 39
 
5.7 Participial Adjectives ................................................................................................ 41
 
5.8 The Ordering of Adjectives ....................................................................................... 46
 
6 Adverbs ............................................................ 48
 
6.1 Formal Characteristics of Adverbs.............................................................................. 49
 
6.2 Adverbs and Adjectives ............................................................................................ 50
 
6.3 Circumstantial Adverbs ............................................................................................ 51
 
6.4 Additives, Exclusives, and Particularizers .................................................................... 52
 
6.5
Wh-
Adverbs........................................................................................................... 53
 
6.6 Sentence Adverbs ................................................................................................... 53
 
7 Prepositions ....................................................... 53
 
7.1 Complex Prepositions ............................................................................................... 54
 
7.2 Marginal Prepositions ............................................................................................... 55
 
8 Conjunctions ..................................................... 56
 
8.1 Coordination Types .................................................................................................. 57
 
8.2 False Coordination ................................................................................................... 58
 
9 Minor word classes ............................................. 59
 
9.1 Formulaic Expressions ............................................................................................. 59
 
9.2 Existential
there
...................................................................................................... 60
 
9.3 Uses of 
It 
............................................................................................................... 60
 
10 Introduces phrases ........................................... 61
 
10.1 Defining a Phrase .................................................................................................. 61
 
10.2 The Basic Structure of a Phrase ............................................................................... 62
 
10.3 More Phrase Types ................................................................................................ 63
 
10.4 Noun Phrase (NP) .................................................................................................. 65
 
10.5 Verb Phrase (VP) ................................................................................................... 65
 
10.6 Adjective Phrase (AP)............................................................................................. 66
 
10.7 Adverb Phrase (AdvP) ............................................................................................ 67
 
10.8 Prepositional Phrase (PP) ........................................................................................ 67
 
10.9 Phrases within Phrases ........................................................................................... 67
 
11 Clauses and sentences ...................................... 68
 
11.1 The Clause Hierarchy ............................................................................................. 69
 
11.2 Finite and Nonfinite Clauses .................................................................................... 70
 
11.3 Subordinate Clause Types ...................................................................................... 71
 
11.3.1 Relative Clauses ............................................................................................ 72
 
11.3.2 Nominal Relative Clauses ............................................................................... 73
 

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