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Science - The Quantum Physics of Black Holes and String TheoRatings:

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/45713258/Science-The-Quantum-Physics-of-Black-Holes-and-String-Theo

07/04/2013

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arXiv:gr-qc/0105063 v1 17 May 2001

1

THE QUANTUM PHYSICS OF BLACKHOLES: Results from String Theory

∗

Sumit R. Das

Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005, India; e-mail:das@theory.tifr.res.in

Samir D. Mathur

Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210; e-mail:mathur@mps.ohio-state.eduKEYWORDS: black holes, information loss, string theory, D-branes, holography

ABSTRACT:

We review recent progress in our understanding of the physics of black holes.In particular, we discuss the ideas from string theory that explain the entropy of black holes froma counting of microstates of the hole, and the related derivation of unitary Hawking radiationfrom such holes.

CONTENTS

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BLACKHOLEENTROPYINSTRINGTHEORY:THEFUNDAMENTALSTRING20
THE FIVE-DIMENSIONAL BLACK HOLE IN TYPE IIBTHEORY

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∗

With permission from the Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science. Final version of this material appears in the Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science Vol. 50, publishedin December 2000 by Annual Reviews, http://AnnualReviews.org.

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46

1 INTRODUCTION

Black holes present us with a very deep paradox. The path to resolving this para-dox may well be the path to a consistent uniﬁed theory of matter and quantizedgravity.In classical gravity, a black hole is a classical solution of the equations of mo-tion such that there is a region of spacetime that is causally disconnected fromasymptotic inﬁnity (see e.g. Reference [1]). The boundary of such a region iscalled the event horizon.Consider a large collection of low-density matter, in an asymptotically ﬂatspacetime. For simplicity, we take the starting conﬁguration to be sphericallysymmetric and nonrotating (these restrictions do not aﬀect the nature of theparadox that emerges). This ball of matter will collapse toward smaller radiiunder its self-gravitation. At some point, the matter will pass through a criticalradius, the Schwarzschild radius

R

s

, after which its further collapse cannot behalted, whatever the equation of state. The ﬁnal result, in classical generalrelativity, is that the matter ends up in an inﬁnite-density singular point, whilethe metric settles down to the Schwarzschild form

ds

2

=

−

(1

−

2

G

N

M rc

2

)

dt

2

+ (1

−

2

G

N

M rc

2

)

−

1

dr

2

+

r

2

d

Ω

2

.

(1)Here

G

N

is Newton’s constant of gravity, and

c

is the speed of light. The horizonradius of this hole is

R

s

=2

G

N

M c

2

→

2

M,

(2)where the last expression arises after we set

G

N

= 1,

c

= 1. (In what follows, weadopt these units unless otherwise explicitly indicated; we also set ¯

h

= 1.)2

D-Branes and Black Holes

3Classically, nothing can emerge from inside the horizon to the outside. A testmass

m

has eﬀective energy zero if it is placed at the horizon; it has rest energy

mc

2

, but a negative gravitational potential energy exactly balances this positivecontribution. For a rough estimate of the horizon size, we may put this negativeenergy to be the Newtonian value

−

G

N

Mm/r

, for which

R

s

∼

G

N

M/c

2

.It may appear from the above that the gravitational ﬁelds at the horizon of a black hole are very large. This is not true. For a neutral black hole of mass

M

, the magnitude of the curvature invariants, which are the measure of localgravitational forces, is given by

|R|∼

G

N

M r

3

.

(3)Thus, at the horizon

r

=

r

H

= 2

G

N

M

, the curvature scales as 1

/M

2

. As a result,for black holes with masses

M

G

−

1

/

2

N

, the curvatures are very small and thespacetime is locally rather close to ﬂat spacetime. In fact, an object falling into ablack hole will not experience any strong force as it crosses the horizon. However,an asymptotic observer watching this object will see that it takes an inﬁnite timeto reach the horizon. This is because there is an inﬁnite gravitational red-shiftbetween the horizon and the asymptotic region.An important point about black hole formation is that one does not need tocrush matter to high densities to form a black hole. In fact, if the hole has mass

M

, the order of magnitude of the density required of the matter is

ρ

∼

M R

3

s

∼

1

M

2

.

(4)Thus, a black hole of the kind believed to exist at the center of our galaxy (10

8

solar masses) could form from a ball with the density of water. In fact, given anydensity we choose, we can make a black hole if we take a suﬃcient total masswith that density. This fact makes it very hard to imagine a theory in whichblack holes do not form at all because of some feature of the interaction betweenthe matter particles. As a consequence, if black holes lead to a paradox, it ishard to bypass the paradox by doing away with black holes in the theory.It is now fairly widely believed that black holes exist in nature. Solar-massblack holes can be endpoints of stellar evolution, and supermassive black holes(

∼

10

5

−

10

9

solar masses) probably exist at the centers of galaxies. In somesituations, these holes accrete matter from their surroundings, and the collisionsamong these infalling particles create very powerful sources of radiation that arebelieved to be the source of the high-energy output of quasars. In this arti-cle, however, we are not concerned with any of these astrophysical issues. Weconcentrate instead on the quantum properties of isolated black holes, with aview toward understanding the problems that arise as issues of principle whenquantum mechanical ideas are put in the context of black holes.For example, the Hawking radiation process discussed below is a quantum pro-cess that is much weaker than the radiation from the infalling matter mentionedabove, and it would be almost impossible to measure even by itself. (The onepossible exception is the Hawking radiation at the last stage of quantum evapora-tion. This radiation emerges in a sharp burst with a universal proﬁle, and thereare experiments under way to look for such radiation from very small primordialblack holes.)

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