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19. Pat - P K Mehta - Silicious Ashes - Patent - 090405

19. Pat - P K Mehta - Silicious Ashes - Patent - 090405

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Published by Narayan Singhania

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Published by: Narayan Singhania on Dec 21, 2010
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United States Patent
4,105,459
 Mehta August 8, 1978
Siliceous ashes and hydraulic cements prepared therefrom
Abstract
 Siliceous compositions are prepared from naturally occurring plant materials (particularlyrice hulls and rice straw) which have relatively high silica concentration by controlledincineration of the plant material to preserve the original cellular structure of the materialand to prevent formation of crystalline forms of silica so that the silica in the product(which may contain from about 49% to about 98% silica remains in the amorphous state;the novel silica containing compositions find utility as a constituent of novel hydrauliccement compositions of high strength and acid resistance, useful in the preparation of mortar and concrete.Inventors:
Mehta; Povinder K.
(El Cerrito, CA)Assignee:
The Regents of the University of California
(Berkeley, CA)Appl. No.:
640893
 Filed:
December 15, 1975
 
Current U.S. Class:
 
106/737
; 106/717; 106/731
Intern'l Class:
C04B 007/02
Field of Search:
106/89,98,120
References Cited[Referenced By]
 
U.S. Patent Documents
 1363879Dec., 1920 Junghandel 106/98.2062879Dec., 1936 Hammenecker 106/120.2410954Nov., 1946 Sharp 106/98.
 
2469379May., 1949 Fraser 106/120.2720462Oct., 1955 Jones 106/63.3125043Mar., 1964 Gravel 110/28.3451944Jun., 1969 Finch 252/421.3574816Apr., 1971 Abbdellatif 106/120.
Foreign Patent Documents
 2070383 Sep., 1971 FR 106/120.
 Primary Examiner:
Douglas; Winston A.
 Assistant Examiner:
Sheehan; John P.
 Attorney, Agent or Firm:
Schamus; Julian J.
 Parent Case Text 
 This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 437,068, filed Jan. 28, 1974 which is adivisional of Ser. No. 276,133, filed July 28, 1972, both now abandoned.
Claims
 I claim:1. A relatively anhydrous composition comprising from 10 - 50% by weight of portlandcement, said portland cement having from about 60 to 69% by weight of combined anduncombined CaO; and from about 32 to about 90% by weight of SiO.sub.2 in the form of a highly reactive, amorphous anhydrous silica material derived from organic agriculturalmatter, having an initial silica content expressed as SiO.sub.2 of up to about 28%, saidsilica material comprising from about 49 to about 98% SiO.sub.2, characterized bycomplete absence of crystalline silica as determined by x-ray diffraction analysis; balance being minor impurities and residual carbon, said carbon removable upon prolongedheating to give a composition containing from about 0.3 to about 2% residual carbon, andfrom 1.0 to about 5% minor impurities, other than CaO.
 Description
 BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION AND PRIOR ARTThis invention relates to a novel composition of matter comprising a highly reactive,highly amorphous, and anhydrous form of silicon oxide (silica); a method for its preparation and novel cement compositions prepared from such silica.
 
 Certain agricultural organic materials are high in biogenetic silica, that is, silica occurringwithin the cell structure. Principally, rice hulls, rice stalks, equisetum, (a common weed popularly known as horsetails) and certain palm leaves, particularly palmyra palm, havevarying amounts of silica in the cell structure. In addition, certain bamboo stems areknown to contain relatively large amounts of silica and wheat straw contain from 2 to 3 percent silica in the cell structure. For example, most rice hulls are generally found tocontain approximately 20% silica while rice straw may have approximately 181/2%silica. Certain California horsetail weeds are known to have about 20 to 25% silica.The disposition of rice hulls and rice straw has become a substantial problem to the ricegrowing industry inasmuch as they apparently can be disposed of only by burning or  burying. Dump space for burying the material has become scarce in the last few years andthe incineration of the silica bearing hulls and straw in open fields generally createsundesirable atmospheric pollutants.It has been known, of course, that silica, along with calcium oxides, is a component of  portland cement, primarily occurring as complex calcium silicates. However, the silica produced by the incineration of silica containing organic agricultural materials can beused as a cement component only to the extent that it replaces sand or shale, because theincineration of the hulls inevitably leads to the production of ash containing crystallineforms of silica.The phase diagram of silicon dioxide indicates that a transition from the amorphous, non-crystalline form of material to the crystalline forms known as tridymite and crystobalitetakes place at very high temperatures when the silica is in pure state. Thus, with puresilica in the amorphous form, it is theoretically necessary to raise the temperatures above2,000.degree. F to effectuate the transformation. However, the incineration of rice hulls,even at temperatures substantially below 2,000.degree. F, has always lead to theformation of crystalline varieties of silica, because the transition temperature fromamorphous to crystalline is reduced substantially by the presence of other components of the original rice hulls.Prior attempts to use crystalline silica as an active component of portland cement havealways involved heat treating mixtures of limestone and siliceous shales or clays attemperatures in excess of 2600.degree. F. The same objective can also be accomplished by application of mechanical energy. Experimentally, it has been shown that attritiongrinding of crystalline quartz can activate the silica by rupturing the chemical bonds atthe surface. In addition to attrition grinding, vibromilled sand-lime mixtures which areattrition ground, have been reported to have acquired binding properties, and thus treatedlime-sand mixtures have been used as hydraulic cements.These processes, except for the commercial process of heating a siliceous raw materialwith limestone, appear to be commercially unattractive because of the excessivemechanical energy necessary in the vibromilling and attrition grinding processes.

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