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32. Germany - 100607 Patent for Manufacturing White Rice Husk Ash

32. Germany - 100607 Patent for Manufacturing White Rice Husk Ash

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Published by: Narayan Singhania on Dec 21, 2010
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Title:
Method of producing low-carbon, white husk ash
 Document Type and Number:United States Patent 4049464Link to this page:http://www.freepatentsonline.com/4049464.htmlAbstract:Low carbon, white husk ash suitable for use in manufacturing building materials,more particularly refractory building materials are prepared by first removing volatileconstituents by heating the husks, normally rice husks but alternatively, forexample, wheat, oats or barley husks, to a first relatively low temperature below theignition point of the husks. Fixed carbon is then oxidized in the presence of a reagentby heating the husks to a second temperature above the separation temperature butbelow the crystallization temperature of the SiO.sub.2 in the husks, following by aheat treatment at a third temperature above the crystallization temperature of theSiO.sub.2, to produce a uniform SiO.sub.2 crystal structure.Inventors:Tutsek, Alexander (Gottingen, DT)Bartha, Peter (Bovenden, DT)Application Number:720089Filing Date:09/02/1976Publication Date:09/20/1977View Patent Images:Images are available in PDF form when logged in. To view PDFs,LoginorCreate Account (Free!) Referenced by:View patents that cite this patent Export Citation:Click for automatic bibliography generationAssignee:Refratechnik GmbH (Gottingen, DT)Primary Class:106/406 Other Classes:423/335Field of Search:106/288 B, 288 Q, 309 423/335US Patent References:1528371Mar, 1925 Gambel 423/335.3125043Mar, 1964 Gravel 110/28.Foreign References:2,070,383 Sep, 1971 FR697,474 Sep, 1953 UKPrimary Examiner:Garvin, Patrick P.Assistant Examiner:
 
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Sheehan, John P.Parent Case Data:This is a continuation, of application Ser. No. 562,098, filed Mar. 26, 1975 nowabandoned.Claims:We claim:1. In a method of producing low-carbon, white rice husk ash suitable for theproduction of building materials, and more particularly refractory building materials,in which method, for purposes of removing volatile constituents and for purposes of transforming the fixed carbon into a gaseous compound, the rice husks are heated toa temperature below the crystallization temperature of the SiO.sub.2 of the ricehusks, whereupon the resultant husk ash is heat-treated at a temperature above thecrystallization temperature of the SiO.sub.2 for the purposes of obtaining a uniformSiO.sub.2 crystal structure, the improvement comprising: the first step of heatingthe rice husks to a first relatively low separation temperature within the range of from 200.degree. to 450.degree. C. in the absence of air, exclusively for separatingthe volatile constituents that are capable of after-burning; subsequently the secondstep of heating the rice husks free of volatile constituents to a gasificationtemperature in the range of from 450.degree. to 550.degree. C. while feeding anoxidizing agent thereto for transforming the fixed carbon into a gaseous phase priorto heat treatment; and the third step of subsequently heating the thus obtained ricehusk ash to a heat treatment temperature in the range of from 700.degree. to800.degree. C.2. The method of claim 1, in which the husks are first brought to a separationtemperature of from 200.degree. to 350.degree. C. at a heating rate of from10.degree. to 40.degree. C./min, from a feed temperature of less than 100.degree.C., and are subsequently heated at the same rate and in the presence of theoxidizing agent to the gasification temperature in the range of from 450.degree. to550.degree.C., after which the resulting husk ash is heated at the same rate to thetreatment temperature between 700 to 800.degree. C.3. The method of claim 2, in which the rate of heating is 25.degree. C./min.4. The method of claim 1, in which the oxidizing agent supplied for oxidising thefixed carbon in the second process step is combustion-supporting air having an aircoefficient of n = 4.0 to 6.0.5. The method of claim 4, in which the oxidizing agent supplied is water-vapour.6. The method of claim 1, in which HCl is added so as to inhibit the crystallization of SiO.sub.2 in the gasification step.7. The method of claim 1, in which husks are comminuted in order to increase thebulk weight thereof before heat-treatment.Description:The invention relates to a method of producing low-carbon, white husks suitable foruse in the manufacture of building materials, more particularly refractory buildingmaterials.Rice is a basic food in Asia, more particularly India and Japan, and substantialamounts are also cultivated in various countries in America and Europe. The present
 
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world rice production of about 400 million tons per year will probably increase in thefuture, owing to the great increase in population, paticularly in Asian countries. Whenrice grains are husked, the husks make up about 14 to 35%, depending on thevariety of rice; since the husks have a low bulk weight of about 100 kg/m.sup.3,they take up 560 to 1400 million m.sup.3.Chemical analysis of rice husks shows the following typical composition (referred tosubstance free from loss on ignition): ______________________________________Water 9%Protein 3.5%Fats 0.5%Cellulose 30 to 42%Pentosan 14 to 18%Mineral ash 14 to 30% ______________________________________The composition of the mineral ash is normally within the following limits: ______________________________________SiO.sub.2 92 to 97%Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 0.75 to 3%Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 0.17 to 2%CaO 0.36 to 3%MgO 0.32 to 1.5% ______________________________________In addition, up to 30% carbon is found, depending on the degree and nature of combustion of the organic constituents before analysis.In view of the composition of rice husks, a number of suggestions have been madefor large-scale use thereof in agriculture or industry. These suggestions relate todirect use, with or without comminution; chemical decomposition of rice husks on anindustrial scale to obtain organic chemical basic materials; combustion for obtainingheat, and use of the mineral ash residues. The possible applications include; the useof rice husks as fodder, for loosening up the earth, for pressing fruit or the like, forproducing building materials such as slabs or the like, or use as fillers, packingmaterials or oil-absorbing substances. In industrial technology, rice husks are a basicmaterial for obtaining furfurol for hydrolysis of wood, and for obtaining acetic acidand other organic basis materials. Rice husks are also used as abrasives, heat-transfer media for steam and electricity generation, and for producing ferrosilicon,silicon carbide, silicon nitride, lignin and nitrogen-lignin compounds, sodium silicate,silicon tetrachloride and the like.More particularly, rice husk ash is used in the glass industry, the ceramics industry,the cement industry and especially in the refractory-materials industry, since it hasthe properties of a porous silicic-acid raw material. As already mentioned, about 92to 97% of rice husk ash consists of SiO.sub.2 and, therefore, has a melting-pointabove 1600.degree. C. It is, therefore, particularly suitable, as a silicic-acid carrier,for use as a raw material for manufacturing heat-insulating, refractory and heat-

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