Various Properties of Propulsion Systems ( A: Good, B: Average, C: Poor)Propulsion/Manoeuvering System
ConventionalPropeller &Rudder 2x2Propeller &High LiftRudder 2x1CycloidalPropeller 2x1Z Drive2x2
Power requirementAACBRequired ship geometryU-V shapeU-V shapeU shapeU shapeTotal propulsion weightAverageAverageHeavyLightRequired engine roomLargeLargeAverageSmallVibration and noiseBBABMechanical safetyAACBAdditional trainingNoYesYesYesReliabilityABBCRedundancyBBCAFuel consumptionAACBHandling and repair costLowLowLowHighInitial costLowAverageHighAverageRunning costLowAverageHighAverageDirectional stability of the proposed ferry has been checked by using Nomoto’s  and Norbin’s  P indices
T r r K
P K T
12(4)which gave a P value of -0.52 which does not satisfy Norbin’s suggested P value of above 0.3. Since this criteria is essentially given for single screw merchant ship forms a moremeaningful approach the following directional stability criteria was adopted:
′ ′−′ ′−′ ′−′>
Y N m x N Y m
v r G v r
()()0(5)According to this criteria (which gives the value of 0.00116) the ferry is directionally juststable. Hence a skeg is found to be necessary for improved directional stability. Conventional propeller arrangements have better hull shapes for the directional stability, and the worse arethe full forms for Z drive and cycloidal propeller systems. A comprehensive simulation of shipmanoeuver should be conducted when required data is available. Examples of such cases aregiven by Wilson et al  and Korkut and Aldogan  including nonlinear effects.
4 Environmental forces and moments
Environmental forces originating from wind, waves and current are taken into account for themanoeuvrability analysis.
4.1 Wind Forces
Wind generated force and moment can be important for the ships with large superstructures. Asthe current case, double ended ferry, usually has a large longitudinal windage area, windgenerated forces above waterline have been calculated from Gould’s method [4,5]. The windspeed in the Bosphorus is assumed to be as maximum of 24.5 knots from any direction relative