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Ship Control

Ship Control

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Published by: Alex on Dec 21, 2010
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Manoeuvrability analysis of double ended ferriesin preliminary design
M.Insel & I.H.Helvacioglu
 Faculty of Naval Architecture & Ocean Engineering, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak, 80626 Istanbul, Turkey Email: insel @ sariyer.cc.itu.edu.tr , helvaci @ sariyer.cc.itu.edu.tr 
The choice of propulsion/manoeuvring system of ships operating in congested waters is mainlygoverned by on manoeuvring capabilities of the available systems. A quantitative approach tomanoeuvring in the preliminary design of these ships is often requested by the operators. Such astudy has been conducted for the selection of propulsion/manoeuvring system of a double ended passenger ferry to operate across the Bosphorus in Istanbul with the aim of reducing the journeytime in highly congested seaway traffic.Four alternative types of propulsion/manoeuvring systems are considered in the current study,namely, conventional propeller and rudder, propeller-high lift rudder, cycloidal propellers and Zdrives. An overall comparison based on the cost, marine engineering aspects, weight, speed andmanoeuvrability is presented for guiding the choice of propulsion/manoeuvrability device ondouble ended passenger ferry. Environmental forces originated from wind, waves and current aretaken into account for the manoeuvrability analysis. Critical manoeuvres have been chosen as position and track keeping in the Bosphorus in heavy traffic, especially among transit vessels,and approach to Karakoy pier. The thrust and side force generated by each type of  propulsion/manoeuvring device has been compared with the required forces. Finally, examplecases with polar graphs of thrust-side force have been given to show the advantages or disadvantages of each device.
1 Introduction
Complete manoeuvrability analysis of a proposed design is often not possible due tounavailability of required detailed data such as hull, propellers, engine, rudders and appendages.Steady state techniques have been deployed to fulfil the manoeuvrability requirements in the preliminary design such as given by Asinovsky [1]. These techniques are based ondetermination of disturbance forces and moments and investigation of required thruster forcesto balance disturbance forces and moments for a given station keeping or track keepinganalysis.
Double ended passenger/vehicle ferries are often utilized for fast turn around in closed seas.The passenger traffic in Istanbul has wide use of passenger ferries to cross the Bosphorus for commuter traffic. A double ended, passenger only, ferry has been proposed to reduce the journey time between Kadikoy and Karakoy which has a traffic of over 30,000 passenger a day.Possible journey time reduction by the use of double ended ferry has been calculated, and a 20 %time reduction has been found.The choice of propulsion/manoeuvering system for the double ended ferries shows variationand selection criteria are not well established [8]. A quantitative approach to manoeuvring bysteady state technique has been conducted for the selection of propulsion/manoeuvring system of a double ended passenger ferry to operate in the Bosphorus in highly congested seaway traffic.A cost-benefit analysis has revealed the potential use of four alternative systems:a) Conventional propeller and rudder-2x2 b) Conventional propeller-high lift rudder-2x1 (Figure 3a)c) Cycloidal propellers-2x1 (Figure 3b)d) Z drives-2x2 (Figure 3c)where 2x2 means two propulsion unit at both ends, 2x1 means one propulsion unit at both ends.The linear manoeuvring theory has been applied to investigate the directional stability.Environmental forces and manoeuvring forces have been calculated and compared with availablethruster forces for critical manoeuvres such as station and track keeping in the Bosphorus, andKarakoy pier approach. Considered environmental force has included wind, wave and currentgenerated forces in extreme conditions on the route. Polar thrust-side force diagrams are used todemonstrate the adequacy of the available systems.
2 Double ended ferry propulsion/manoeuvering systems
Four alternative types of propulsion/manoeuvring systems are compared in terms of marineengineering and naval architectural aspects. The available data obtained from the variouscompanies and open literature have been investigated for an overall design study. The results aresummarised in Table 1. The manoeuvring aspects of the systems will be discussed in Section 3 to7. The physical characteristics of the propulsion systems are considered first. Then the comfort,safety and overall reliability properties of the propulsion systems are compared. Lastly, initial,operating and maintenance costs of each type of device are compared.This table shows that each type of device has some advantages and disadvantages. Reaching aclear distinction among the alternative systems is highly dependent on the design synthesis of the proposed ship. To do that may require the use of multi-objective decision making techniques.
3 Manoeuvering equations and directional stability
In the preliminary design stage, linear manoeuvering analysis can be utilized due to the lack of data. Force equations of such analysis as given by Clarke [3] are :
Y Y v Y v Y r Y
v v r r 
= + + +
 N N v N v N r N
v v r r 
= + + +
(2)Coefficients of manoeuvering can be determined from model tests. However such tests areobviously useless in the preliminary design, hence use of empirical equations such as given byClarke [3] are often utilized.
Table 1
Various Properties of Propulsion Systems ( A: Good, B: Average, C: Poor)Propulsion/Manoeuvering System
ConventionalPropeller &Rudder 2x2Propeller &High LiftRudder 2x1CycloidalPropeller 2x1Z Drive2x2
Power requirementAACBRequired ship geometryU-V shapeU-V shapeU shapeU shapeTotal propulsion weightAverageAverageHeavyLightRequired engine roomLargeLargeAverageSmallVibration and noiseBBABMechanical safetyAACBAdditional trainingNoYesYesYesReliabilityABBCRedundancyBBCAFuel consumptionAACBHandling and repair costLowLowLowHighInitial costLowAverageHighAverageRunning costLowAverageHighAverageDirectional stability of the proposed ferry has been checked by using Nomoto’s [3] and Norbin’s [3] P indices
T r r
12(4)which gave a P value of -0.52 which does not satisfy Norbin’s suggested P value of above 0.3[3]. Since this criteria is essentially given for single screw merchant ship forms a moremeaningful approach the following directional stability criteria was adopted:
Y N m x N Y m
v r G v
()()0(5)According to this criteria (which gives the value of 0.00116) the ferry is directionally juststable. Hence a skeg is found to be necessary for improved directional stability. Conventional propeller arrangements have better hull shapes for the directional stability, and the worse arethe full forms for Z drive and cycloidal propeller systems. A comprehensive simulation of shipmanoeuver should be conducted when required data is available. Examples of such cases aregiven by Wilson et al [9] and Korkut and Aldogan [6] including nonlinear effects.
4 Environmental forces and moments
Environmental forces originating from wind, waves and current are taken into account for themanoeuvrability analysis.
4.1 Wind Forces
Wind generated force and moment can be important for the ships with large superstructures. Asthe current case, double ended ferry, usually has a large longitudinal windage area, windgenerated forces above waterline have been calculated from Gould’s method [4,5]. The windspeed in the Bosphorus is assumed to be as maximum of 24.5 knots from any direction relative

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