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Meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California: state of knowledge

Meadows in the Sierra Nevada of California: state of knowledge

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Published by: PACIFIC SOUTHWEST RESEARCH STATION REPORT on Dec 21, 2010
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United StatesDepartment of Agriculture
Meadows in the Sierra
Forest Service
Nevada of California:
Pacific SouthwestForest and RangeExperiment Station
state of knowledge
General TechnicalReport PSW-84
Raymond D. Ratliff 
 
The Author:
RAYMOND D. RATLIFF,
a range scientist, is assigned to the Station's range management research in California unit, headquartered at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory, Fresno, Calif. He earned bachelor of science (1959) and master of science (1961)degrees in range management at the University of California, and a doctorate (1979) at New Mexico State University. He joined the Station staff in 1961.
Acknowledgments:
I thank the following persons for their interest and help in defining goals andobjectives for management of meadow resources, or for their review of the manuscript,or both: Leonard Topping, Madera County; John T. Stanley, Harvey & StanleyAssociates Inc.; Jerry L. Neal, Robert Hall, and Rex Quinn, Sierra Club; Lewis E.Carpenter, Henry A. Doddridge, Ray Marxmiller, and Claude L. Brown, FresnoCounty Sportsmen's Club; Gordon C. Ashcraft and Ronald C. Bertram, CaliforniaDepartment of Fish and Game; David J. Parsons and Steven H. DeBenedetti, Sequoiaand Kings Canyon National Parks; Richard Riegelhuth, Yosemite National Park;Gordon C. Heebner and James R. Shevock, Sequoia National Forest; and John (Ken)Stithem and Jerome DeGraff, Sierra National Forest. Also, I thank Stanley E. Westfallwho since 1965 has been involved in meadow research.
Publisher:
Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment StationP.O. Box 245, Berkeley, California 94701September 1985
 
Meadows in the SierraNevada of California:state of knowledge
Raymond D. Ratliff 
CONTENTS
In Brief 
..................................................................................
ii
Introduction
........................................................................
1
Brief History
........................................................................
1
Grazing by Livestock ......................................................
1
Damage to Resources ......................................................
2
Classification of Meadows
..................................................
2
Subformations ..................................................................
3
Series ...............................................................................
3
Associations ....................................................................
5
Meadow Soils ..................................................................
6
Series Descriptions ..........................................................
9
Productivity of Meadows
.................................................
16
Elevation ........................................................................
17
Vegetation ......................................................................
17
Range Condition ............................................................
23
Fertilization ....................................................................
24
Utilization ......................................................................
26
Management Problems
....................................................
26
Animal Activities ..........................................................
26
Lodgepole Pine ..............................................................
33
Fire ................................................................................
36
Gully Erosion ................................................................
38
Evaluating Range Conditions
..........................................
41
Established Methods .....................................................
42
Condition Standards ......................................................
43
Management Concepts
.....................................................
47
References
.........................................................................
48
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