Most of Ca++ needed for smooth muscles contraction is coming from ECF(extracellular fluid) because smooth muscles have
poorly developed sarcoplasmicreticulum
Smooth muscles divided into 2 types :( according to presence of gap junctions)1.
Single unit : (more common)
It is also called
Presence of gap junctions
All fibers act as one unit
Have little innervations: so action potential conduct to the inside ofmuscle fibers by gap junctions
Origin of electrical activity is spontaneous (it has specialized musclecells that work as pacemaker, so these cells have leaky type ion (Na+or K+) channels).
So the effect of innervations of sympathetic and parasympathetic isnot to make (begin) the contraction but to modify the pacemakeractivity (increase or decrease the rate of contraction )2.
Multi units : (less common)
Each muscle fiber should receive innervation (like skeletal muscles)
Innervations of multi units
: each nerve (remember autonomic nerve)give branch and each branch ends with bulges called
which contain neurotransmitters
the receptors of neurotransmitter are found all through the musclefiber (on the surface of the plasma membrane)
in certain places(like end plate in skeletal muscles)
So we don’t have close relation between nerve and receptors, thesesynapses called
Type of potential is graded potential, so if we increase the strengthof stimulus we will increase the strength of contraction.
Examples of multi units smooth muscles :-
Arrector pili muscle (hair muscle): contracted at cold and greatfear situations.-
Ciliary muscle: contraction and relaxation of this muscle willaffect the thickness of lens of the eye which
our vision (tosee close or far things)so it is also called adaption muscle.