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histology #11

histology #11

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Published by hamza jassar

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Published by: hamza jassar on Aug 07, 2008
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06/24/2010

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Page: 18a
Smooth muscles:
 
Most of Ca++ needed for smooth muscles contraction is coming from ECF(extracellular fluid) because smooth muscles have
poorly developed sarcoplasmicreticulum
.
 
Smooth muscles divided into 2 types :( according to presence of gap junctions)1.
 
Single unit : (more common)
o
 
It is also called
viscera
 
o
 
Presence of gap junctions
o
 
All fibers act as one unit
o
 
Have little innervations: so action potential conduct to the inside ofmuscle fibers by gap junctions
o
 
Origin of electrical activity is spontaneous (it has specialized musclecells that work as pacemaker, so these cells have leaky type ion (Na+or K+) channels).
o
 
So the effect of innervations of sympathetic and parasympathetic isnot to make (begin) the contraction but to modify the pacemakeractivity (increase or decrease the rate of contraction )2.
 
Multi units : (less common)
o
 
Each muscle fiber should receive innervation (like skeletal muscles)
o
 
Innervations of multi units
: each nerve (remember autonomic nerve)give branch and each branch ends with bulges called
varicosities
which contain neurotransmitters
o
 
the receptors of neurotransmitter are found all through the musclefiber (on the surface of the plasma membrane)
not
in certain places(like end plate in skeletal muscles)
o
 
So we don’t have close relation between nerve and receptors, thesesynapses called
en-passage synapses
.
o
 
Type of potential is graded potential, so if we increase the strengthof stimulus we will increase the strength of contraction.
o
 
Examples of multi units smooth muscles :-
 
Arrector pili muscle (hair muscle): contracted at cold and greatfear situations.-
 
Ciliary muscle: contraction and relaxation of this muscle willaffect the thickness of lens of the eye which
adapts
our vision (tosee close or far things)so it is also called adaption muscle.
 
Page: 18b
 
In smooth muscles there is no troponin but there are tropomycin which until todaywe don’t know its function.
 
Calmodulin is the binding protein of Ca++ in smooth muscles.
 
Smooth muscles contraction :Ca++
-
calmodulin complex activate myosin light chainkinase ……… phosphorylation of myosin ……… activate ATPase ……… cause tension(contraction)
 
Relaxation of smooth muscles happens when Ca++
-
calmodulin complex iscompletely dissociated ( Ca++ separate from calmodulin)
 
Smooth muscles can make continuous (sustained) contraction (by latch-bridgemechanism), we need
that
to regulate and maintain our blood pressure (especially inarterioles). And this regulation of blood pressure is done by constriction or dilationof blood vessels [arterioles] (so sustained contraction (tonic) will allow bloodvessels to do both constriction and dilation) .
Vasodilation vascular tonic vasoconstrictionin arterioles
 
Continuous (sustained ) contraction is called smooth muscle tone
 
If there wasn’t sustained contraction in arterioles this mean that arteriolediameter will increase ……… and leads to low blood pressure ……… no blood will reachto many vital parts of our body (like brain, kidneys ……).
 
Smooth muscle contraction needs both Ca++ and ATPase (like skeletal muscles).
 
ATPase before the phosphorylation of myosin is inactive (in resting state)
Page: 18c
 
Sources of Ca++ in smooth muscles :
o
 
Mainly
from voltage gated Ca++ channels.
o
 
Ligand (chemical) gated Ca++ channels. {
ECF
}
o
 
IP3 gated Ca++ channels (which similar to ligand channels)
o
 
Little
from sarcoplasmic reticulum (poorly developed ).{
ICF
}

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