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Fruit Plant Species Mentioned in the Holy Qura’n and

Fruit Plant Species Mentioned in the Holy Qura’n and

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American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (2): 284-295, 2009ISSN 1818-6769© IDOSI Publications, 2009
Corresponding Author:
Sarfaraz Khan Marwat, Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
284
Fruit Plant Species Mentioned in the Holy Qura’n andAhadith and Their Ethnomedicinal Importance
Sarfaraz Khan Marwat, Mir Ajab Khan, Muhammad Aslam Khan,
1
 
1
 
2
 Mushtaq Ahmad, Muhammad Zafar, Fazal-ur-Rehmanand Shazia Sultana
1
 
1
 
3 1
Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
1
Department of Arabic, Islamic Studies and Research Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
2
Faculty of Pharmacy Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan
3
Abstract:
In view of the importance of this study comprehensive detailed data was collected from Holy Quran,Ahadith`s books and books written on the Islamic medicines. Present findings confined to 10 fruit plant speciesbelonging to 10 genera of 9 families. The plant species are:
Citrullus lanatus
(Thunb.) Mats. & Nakai,
Cucumis sativus
L.,
Cydonia oblonga
Mill.
Ficus carica
L.,
Olea europea
L.,
Phoenix dactylifera
L.,
Punica granatum
L.,
Salvadora persica
L.,
Vitis vinifera
L. and
 Zizyphus mauritiana
Lam. mentioned inHoly Quran and Ahadith. Complete macro & microscopic detailed morphological features of these species werediscussed. Results were systematically arranged by alphabetic order of botanical names followed by Englishname, Arabic name, family, habit and habitat, part used, medicinal uses and references cited from Holy Quranand, Ahadith. The main aim of this study is to document the knowledge of ethnobotanical importance of fruitsin the light of Islam. A table comprising, distribution in world, flowering period and chemical constituents, isgiven.
Key words:
Ethnomedicinal study
%
Pakistan
%
Holy Quran
%
Ahadith
INTRODUCTION
Fruits, eaten raw or consumed as fresh juice, areFruits are one of the oldest forms of food known tothe body. The low level of sodium in fruits plays anman. There are many references to fruits in ancientimportant role for people who would like to avail of a salt-literature. Vedas state that the fruits form the base of thefree diet. Dry fruits like apricots, raisins and dates areFood of Gods. According to Qur’an, the fruits like grape,storehouses of calcium and iron, essential for thedate, fig, olive and pomegranate are gifts and heavenlystrengthening of bones and maintaining good blood,fruits of God. The people in ancient times regarded fruitsrespectively. Custard apple too is an excellent calciumto be endowed with magic or divine properties. They gavesource. If you are unwell, consume fruits in the form of them due reverence and dedicated them to their gods andfresh juice only. One or two fruits a day cleans thegoddesses. They also used their designs in decoratingdigestive tract and aids easy bowel action [2].temples, vestments or ceremonial garments and sacredPlants are an essential component of the universe.vessels. Fresh and dry fruits are the natural staple food ofHuman beings have used plants as medicine from the veryman. They contain substantial quantities of essentialbeginning of time. After various observations andnutrients in a rational proportion. They are excellentexperimentations medicinal plants were identified as asources of minerals, vitamins and enzymes. They aresource of important medicine, therefore, treatmenteasily digested and exercise a cleansing effect on thethrough these medicinal plants, began in the early stagesblood and the digestive tract. Persons subsisting on thisof human civilization [3]. Approximately 70% of thenatural diet will always enjoy good health. Moreover, thehomeopathic drugs are prepared from the fresh plants.ailments caused by the intake of unnatural foods can beSimilarly more than 90% of tibbi medicines are preparedsuccessfully treated by fruits. Fresh and dry fruits arefrom herbs. Pakistan is very rich in plants of medicinalthus not only a good food but also a good medicine [1].value [4].excellent ways to retain and balance the moisture level in
 
 Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (2): 284-295, 2009
285In Islam diseases are cured in two ways, first the curevegetable, medicinal and industrial products. Dataof soul through prayers and second the cure of ailmentsinventory constitutes botanical name, family, Quranicthrough medicines. The Holy Quran is one of thename, English name, local names, Arabic name, habit andreference books describing the importance of plants usedhabitat, parts used, medicinal uses and references citedfor different ailments in various Surahs. The Holy Quranfrom Holy Quran and books of Ahadith. A tablesays: And the earth He has put down (laid) for thecomprising S. #., botanical name, distribution in world,creatures. Theirin are fruits, date palms producingflowering and fruiting period and chemical constituents,sheathed fruit-stalks (enclosing dates). And also corn,is given at the end.with (its) leaves and stalks for fodder and sweet-scentedplants. Then which of the blessings of your lord will you
Citrullus lanatus
(Thunb.) Mats. & Nakai
both (jinn and men) deny? [5].Our Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wassallam) usedcertain herbs and recommended various medicinal plantsfor cure of common diseases. The Prophet (SallallahoAlayhi Wasallam) frequently commented upon the natureand value of various foods and spices. These commentswere noted by his wives and companions (RadiallahoAnhum) and remain available to us today [6].Keeping in view the importance of diverse medicinalflora and rich medicinal culture of Islam, research work was conducted to investigate ethnobotanical uses andcreate awareness about the fruit plant species enlisted inHoly Quran, Ahadith for the welfare of humancommunities throughout the world.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research work was conducted by reviewing theHoly Quran, Ahadith and Islamic books. Comprehensiveand detailed information about 10 fruit plant species of ethnobotanical importance mentioned in the Holy Quranand Ahadith were collected from these sources. Plantsspecies were arranged in systematic order of botanicalnames in alphabetic order followed by family, Quranicname, Arabic name, English name, habit and habitat, partused, medicinal uses and references cited from HolyQuran, Ahadith and Islamic books. Correct botanicalnames, their families and identification of plants weredone by using flora of Pakistan
.
RESULTS
Present findings were confined to 10 fruit plantspecies belonging to 10 genera of 9 families enlisted inHoly Quran, Ahadith and Islamic literature. The plantspecies are:
Citrullus lanatus, Cucumis sativus
.,
Cydonia oblonga
.
Ficus carica
 
Olea europea,
 
Phoenixdactylifera,
 
Punica granatum,
 
Salvadora persica,Vitis vinifera
and
 Zizyphus mauritiana
which are usedthroughout the world for various aspects such as food,English Name:Water MelonLocal Name:TarboozArabic Name:BitteekhFamily:CucurbitaceaeHabit & Habitat:Annual climber or trailer, cultivated.Part used:Fruit and seeds.Medicinal uses:Kidney pain clears the urine andstomach, facial beauty, increaseimmunity, jaundice and have coldeffects.
References from Ahadith
C
Narrated Sahl bin Sad Al-Sadi (Radiyallahu Anhu):Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) ate ripedates with water melon [7].
C
Hazrat Abdullah Bin Abbas (Radiyallahu Anhu )narrates that Rasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam)said, “Water melon is diet as well as drink. It washesand purifies the urinary bladder. It increases thesexual power [8].
C
Hazrat Aisha (Radiyallahu Anha) narrates thatRasulullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) ate watermelon with fresh dates [8].
Cucumis sativus
L.
English name: CucumberLocal name:KhiraArabic name:Qissa, KhiarunFamily Name: CucurbitaceaeHabit and Habitat:Annual trailer or climber, cultivatedherb.Parts used:FruitMedicinal uses: Cooling, diuretic, tonic andvermifuge, diuretic, purgative.
References from Holy Quran
C
Sûrah 2. Al-Baqarah, Verse. # 61: And (remember)when you said, “O Mûsâ (Moses)! We can notendure one kind of food. So invoke your Lord for usto bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its
 
 Am-Euras. J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 5 (2): 284-295, 2009
286herbs, its cucumbers, its
Fûm
(wheat or garlic), itsdiseases of the heart and makes the babieslentils and its onions.” [5]. handsome” [8].
References from Ahadith
 Ficus carica
L.
 
C
Narrated Abdullah bin Ja'far (Radiyallahu Anhu ): Isaw Allah's Apostle (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam)eating fresh dates with cucumber [Bukhari, Muslim,Tirmizi, Ibne Maja [9].
C
Abdullah bin Ja'far (Radiyallahu Anhu ) reported: Isaw Allah's Messenger (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam)eating cucumber with fresh dates [8].
C
Narrated Aisha, Ummul Mu'minin (RadiyallahuAnha): My mother intended to make me fat to sendme to the (house of) the Apostle of Allah (SallallahoAlayhi Wasallam). But nothing which she desiredbenefited me till she gave me cucumber with freshdates to eat. Then I became very fat [9].
Cydonia oblonga
Mill.
English Name:QuinceLocal Name:Bahi
References from Ahadith
Arabic Name:Safarjal
C
Hazrat Abu Darda (Radiallaho Anho) narrates thatFamily:Rosaceae Rasullullah (Sallallhu Alayhi Wasallam) said, Eat fig,Habit & Habitat:Small tree (shrub) found in dry rockyfor it cures the piles and is useful for rheumatism” [8].places, foothills and cultivated on
C
Hazrat Abu Darda (Radiallaho Anho) narrates thatthe plains. someone presented the Prophet a plate of figs and heMedicinal uses:Heart diseases, diarrhea,said, “Eat figs! If I would say a certain type of fruitendocarditis, pericarditis, dysenterywas sent down to us from the heavens I would say
References from Ahadith
piles and is useful for rheumatism.”[10]
C
Hazrat Talha bin Ubaid Ullah (R.A) narrated thatRasullullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said: This
Olea europea
L.
(Quince) makes the heart strengthen, makes thebreath pleasant and relieves (removes) the burden of the chest [8].
C
Hazrat Jabir bin Abdullah (R.A) narrated thatRasullullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said, “Eatthe Quince (Safarjal) because it cure the heart attack and relieves(removes) the burden of the chest”[8].
C
Hazrat Anus bin Malik (R.A) narrated thatRasullullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said: theburden of the heart is removed by eating of theQuince [8].
C
The Holy Prophet (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said,"Eat quince, for it sweetens the heart. For Allah hassent no prophet as His messenger without feedinghim on the quince of Paradise [8].
C
Rasullullah (Sallallaho Alayhi Wasallam) said, “Feedyour pregnant women on quince, for it cures theEnglish Name:FigsLocal Name:AnjeerArabic Name:TeenFamily:MoraceaeHabit & Habitat:A small tree cultivated in poor soilPart used:Bark, leaves, MilMedicinal uses:Remove kidney and urinary bladderstone, release intestinal pain, pile,dyspepsia and anorexia.
 
References from Holy Quran
C
Surrah Teen, Verse. #. 1-4: By the fig and the olive.By mount Sinai. By this city of security(Makkah).Verily,We created man in the beststature(mould) [5].it’s a fig because it has no seeds. It ends (cures) theEnglish Name:OliveLocal Name:ZaitoonArabic Name:ZaitoonFamily:OleaceaeHabit & Habitat:An erect branched cultivated tree.Part used:Fruit and oilMedicinal uses:Strengthen body muscles, slowdown aging, clear the blood, removethe measlesspot, piles, tuberculosis,eczema, baldness, kidney pain,pancreas pain, maleness, commoncold, stomach and respiratorydiseases.
References from Holy Quran
C
Surah 6. Al-An‘âm, Verse. # 99: And out of the date-palm and its spathe come forth clusters of dateshanging low and near and gardens of grapes, olive

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