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Dyeing of Wool and Silk by Eucalyptus Leaves Extract

Dyeing of Wool and Silk by Eucalyptus Leaves Extract

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Published by pholm123
Natural dyeing with eucalyptus leaf extract
Natural dyeing with eucalyptus leaf extract

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: pholm123 on Dec 24, 2010
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This article was downloaded by:
[Mongkholrattanasit, Rattanaphol] 
4 December 2009 
Access details:
Access Details: [subscription number 917416346] 
Taylor & Francis 
Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK
Journal of Natural Fibers
Publication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t792306907
Dyeing of Wool and Silk by Eucalyptus Leaves Extract
Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit
; Jiri Kryštůfek
; Jakub Wiener
Department of Textile Chemistry, Technical University of Liberec, Czech RepublicOnline publication date: 03 December 2009
To cite this Article
Mongkholrattanasit, Rattanaphol, Kryštůfek, Jiri and Wiener, Jakub(2009) 'Dyeing of Wool and Silk byEucalyptus Leaves Extract', Journal of Natural Fibers, 6: 4, 319 — 330
To link to this Article: DOI:
Full terms and conditions of use:http://www.informaworld.com/terms-and-conditions-of-access.pdfThis article may be used for research, teaching and private study purposes. Any substantial orsystematic reproduction, re-distribution, re-selling, loan or sub-licensing, systematic supply ordistribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden.The publisher does not give any warranty express or implied or make any representation that the contentswill be complete or accurate or up to date. The accuracy of any instructions, formulae and drug dosesshould be independently verified with primary sources. The publisher shall not be liable for any loss,actions, claims, proceedings, demand or costs or damages whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directlyor indirectly in connection with or arising out of the use of this material.
 Journal of Natural Fibers 
, 6:319–330, 2009Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLCISSN: 1544-0478 print/1544-046X onlineDOI: 10.1080/15440470903354695
 WJNF1544-04781544-046X  Journal of Natural Fibers, Vol. 6, No. 4, Oct 2009: pp. 0–0 Journal of Natural Fibers
Dyeing of Wool and Silk by Eucalyptus LeavesExtract 
Dyeing by Eucalyptus ExtractR. Mongkholrattanasit et al.
 Department of Textile Chemistry, Technical University of Liberec, Czech Republic
Wool and silk fabrics were dyed using the water extract obtained  from eucalyptus leaves; essentially higher utilization of dyestuffs and shortening of the dyeing procedure was achieved as a result of the padding dyeing principle followed prior to drying. Simulta-neous mordanting by FeSO 
shows brown-grey color of different  shades depending on the dye concentration. The dye exploitationof wool is higher than that of silk, and in both cases common“exhaustion” methods are better than “long baths.” The ecological and economical considerations of dyeing by natural dyestuffs are discussed. KEYWORDSnatural dyes, eucalyptus leaves extract, mordant, ferrous sulfate, wool, silk, pad-dry dyeing method, ecological and economical aspects 
INTRODUCTIONTheoretical Presuppositions of Natural Dyes to Dyeing
 Achieving a good, or at least a relatively good, water solubility using naturaldyes is rather exceptional. No chemical group is capable of electrolyticdissociation or ionization in a molecule; an interesting and important exceptionis the
, for example, pelargonidine, cyanidine, and betanidineare slightly cationic dyes and, therefore, also have relatively good solubility in water.
 Address correspondence to Rattanaphol Mongkholrattanasit, Department of TextileChemistry, Technical University of Liberec, Studentská 2, Liberec 46117, Czech Republic.E-mail:rattanaphol.mongkholrattanasit@tul.cz
 D o w nl o ad ed  B y : [ M o n gkh ol r a t t a n a si t ,  R a t t a n a ph ol]  A t : 10 :09 4  D e c e mb e r 2009
 R. Mongkholrattanasit et al.
The “conditional solubility” of indigoid natural dyes, which in theiroriginal form are entirely insoluble, presents a quite special principle. Infact, indigo has been imitated to a great extent; synthetic indigo and theirderivatives were produced on an industrial scale at the end of thenineteenth century as a forerunner of the latter large group of 
vat dyestuffs 
.The alkali reductive conversion of this fully insoluble compound in a propersoluble sodium salt of 
with affinity to fibers and theiroxidation after dyeing with the primary insoluble vat dye, which is finely dispersed in the fiber, is well known. What do the majority of natural dyes have in common? The chemicalconstitution (and corresponding physical properties) of indigo and otheranthocyanin dyes has remarkable similarity with the modern synthetic
disperse dyes 
: the solubility of more or less elongated molecules of chromogen is due to the presence of several polar groups (mainly –OH) onaromatic rings. No groups are capable of electrolytic ionization (with theexception of the anthocyanin and betanin). From this follows that they only have low solubility in water. Empirically, it is known that it is impossible tostrengthen dyeing of cotton with natural dyes, but it can be done by addingneutral electrolytes (sodium chloride or sulfate) as
 substantive dyes 
. Andbath acidifying, while having a significant effect on the so-called
acid dyes 
(colored sodium salts of sulfonic acids), has a negligible effect on the naturaldyes.The structure of the flavonoid-coloring components of eucalyptusleaves and tannin (Figure 1) is compared with the typical azo andanthraquinone disperse dye (Figure 2). Assume that most natural dyes are, on the basis of modern dyeingscience, the disperse dyes. But what are the dyes for wool, silk, cotton, andflax? Consider that each fiber type in dyeing has already been studied, and ithas become apparent that the disperse dyes are not good dyes for theaforementioned fibers. On the contrary, the synthetic disperse dyestuffs were developed for dyeing acetyl cellulose and synthetic fibers (i.e., hydro-phobic fibers), and they have a low affinity for wool, silk, cotton, and othersuch fibres that are mainly hydrophilic. Though low, the indispensableaffinity of disperse dyes makes them very undesirable for the staining of  wool or cotton component by the dyeing of fiber mixtures, namely withpolyester fiber (which is dyeable only in disperse dyes). This imperfectcoloration-staining must be rather difficult to remove from wool or cottoncomponent after dyeing because of its poor wet fastness and mostly unpleasant shade, which can be different from the shade of the same dyeon polyester.However, the above-mentioned majority of natural dyes are providingonly inexpressive wet fastness on wool and cotton fibers, and themordanting by salts of suitable metals is also needed to improve wetfastness (not only to deepen but also to intensify the color).
 D o w nl o ad ed  B y : [ M o n gkh ol r a t t a n a si t ,  R a t t a n a ph ol]  A t : 10 :09 4  D e c e mb e r 2009

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