In blue: caliphUthman, oneof the fourRashidunCaliphs. In green, the Umayyad Caliphs of Damascus.In yellow, the Umayyad emirs of Córdoba. In orange, the Umayyad Caliphsof Córdoba. Abd Al-Rahman III was an emir until 929 when he proclaimed
himself Caliph. Muhammad is included (in caps) to show the kinship of theUmayyads with him.