DOKLADY BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
fore, the processes mediated by ﬁlter-feeders areimportant for the formation and maintenance of theentire ecosystem [13, 14]. Given the importance of theﬁltration activity of ﬁlter-feeders, this can be regardedas an essential function of the population of these inver-tebrates and an essential component of structural andfunctional organization of the corresponding aquaticbiogeocenoses. A decrease in the overall ﬁltrationactivity of ﬁlter-feeders (e.g., as a result of reduction of the total biomass of mollusk populations or inhibitionof the activity of individual mollusks, see Table 2)poses an environmental hazard of suppression of theprocesses of self-puriﬁcation of water . Therefore,not only the biodiversity, but also the abundance of bivalve mollusks and other ﬁlter-feeders of zoobenthos,should be a subject of conservancy. Special malacolog-ical and hydrobiological reserves should be organizedto attain this goal.
Principles of nature conservation conditions inmalacological and hydrobiological reserves.
The cur-rent state of knowledge about ecology of aquatic sys-tems and hydrobionts suggests that the principles sum-marized in Table 3 should be taken as basic principlesof nature conservation conditions in malacological andhydrobiological reserves. Although a complete imple-mentation of these principles may be impracticable, itis necessary, from the ecological point of view to setthem as a goal to be approached as close as possible.
Conservation of as complete a set of species of the aquatic ecosystem as possible is the mostgeneral rule of long-term conservation of ecosystems.This principle is based on the whole aggregate of knowledge about the interspecies relationships in eco-systems that are important to maintain the ecosystemstability for long time [11, 12].
Conservation of functional activity of organisms in population is an essential factor requiredto maintain the water self-puriﬁcation capacity of eco-system at a sufﬁciently high level [13–15]. As shownearlier, at least 19 processes are required to conservethe water self-puriﬁcation capacity of ecosystems. Of these 19 processes, at least 5–6 are biological, and theyare provided by the functional activity of major groupsof hydrobionts [6, 7, 13, 14], including ﬁlter-feeders[2–7]. Imbalance of these processes (inhibition of theﬁltration activity of hydrobionts, in particular) imposesan environmental hazard of deterioration of water qual-ity and loss of habitats of endangered species.
Conservation of biomass and produc-tivity of aquatic communities and populations of hydrobionts is an absolutely necessary condition forimplementation of Principle 2 (see above). In the caseof reduction of the biomass of ﬁlter-feeders (e.g.,bivalve mollusks), there is a corresponding decrease inthe overall volume of water ﬁltrated by these organismsper unit time. These organisms, in this case, are unableto provide the a complete elimination of suspended par-ticles from water, thereby posing the environmentalhazard of deterioration of water quality in the ecosys-tem.
Conservation of the populations of other organisms (including populations living outsidethe conservation area) that determine the survival rateand life cycle of the protected hydrobionts is a neces-sary condition for conservation of the hydrobionts pro-tected. For example, the life cycles of many freshwatermollusks include the stage of glochidia, which grow onﬁsh gills. Therefore, conservation of ﬁsh population isa necessary condition of survival of these mollusks
Total ﬁltration activity of populations of ﬁlter-feeding mollusks (data of numerous authors cited from [5, 7])Site of measurementTestNumericalvalue, days (m
)Bay of Brest, FranceTime of ﬁltration of the entire volume2.8Oostershelde estuary, The NetherlandsTime of ﬁltration of the entire volume3.7West Wadden SeaTime of ﬁltration of the entire volume5.8East Wadden SeaTime of ﬁltration of the entire volume2.1Rivers of North AmericaFiltration volume of water column above1 m
of bottom surface per day(0.3–10)Various marine ecosystems of Western EuropeFiltration volume of water column above1 m
of bottom surface per day(1–10)
Modiﬁcation of the efﬁciency of elimination of suspended particles from water as a result of pollution-indu-ced suppression of ﬁltration activity Mollusk speciesSubstance*EEE**Unio tumidusSWM1, 50 mg/l112.2–186.7Mytilus galloprovincialisSWM2, 20 mg/l127.7–276.4Crassostrea gigasSWM3, 30 mg/l153.2–10800Crassostrea gigasSWM4, 20 mg/l153.4–261.7Crassostrea gigasSWM5, 1 mg/l121.0–200
* SWM1 is the synthetic washing mixture OMO; SWM2 is thesynthetic washing mixture IXI; SWM3 is the synthetic washingmixture Deni Automate; SWM4 is the synthetic washing mixtureLanza; SWM5 is the synthetic washing mixture Vesna-delicate.** EEE is the effect on the efﬁciency of elimination .