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Stress and Life Style Mangement 148

Stress and Life Style Mangement 148

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Published by: samsunisha on Dec 27, 2010
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06/29/2014

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Stress and Life Style Mangement
Stress and Life Style ManagementThe Nature Of Stress
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Definitions of stress approach stress from three viewpoints
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from the viewpoint of the stressor
 
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from the reaction to the stressor
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from an interactionist view of the relation between the event and theperson experiencing it
 
1. Stress in Terms of Stressors
Life Event Stressors
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Holmes and Rahe (1967) suggest lifestyle changes can create stress; as thenumber of changes increase the risk of illness grows; stress can cause effectfor as long as one year after the events
 
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to check your stress level click on this link:
 Stress Assessment Occupational Stressors
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consider the physical environment: florescent lights, air quality, heatingvariation, noise
 
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consider interpersonal relations: angry /demanding boss, unhappycompetitive coworkers
 
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consider pressure of technological change
Psychological Changes
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Friedman and Rosenman (1974) suggest there are two types of personalitiesType A and Type B; These researchers say Type A are more likely to sufferheart attacks.
 
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Type A characteristics: explosively accentuate key words in ordinaryconversation; always, walk, talk and eat rapidly; impatient at rate at whichthings get done; frequently do two things at once; preoccupied with ownideas and change conversations to their topics; feel guilty when relaxing; failto notice beauty in surroundings; seek to get things done rather thanenjoying them; try to do more in less time; feel challenged by other TypeA's; exhibit gestures or tics; take pride in doing things better because of 
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Stress and Life Style Mangement
speed; translate everyone and everything in terms of numbers (time,amount distance)
 
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Type B characteristics: no time urgency; no free floating hostility; play forfun; no need to display achievements
 
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recent studies say it may only be the hostility that relates to heart attacks
Pressure
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pressure to perform (meet deadline, get grade, complete task)
 
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pressure to conform (meet others expectation in speaking, dress, behaviour
Frustration
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when pursuit of goal is thwarted; two types: failure and loss
Conflict
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conflict can be internal (guilt or blame for not living up to standard)
 
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conflict can be interpersonal ( when two people want same thing and onlyone can have it)
Daily Hassles
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daily hassles can be as upsetting as major life traumas
 
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waiting in traffic, lines, on hold
 
2. Stress as a Response : General Adaptation Syndrome (HansSelye 1974/1976)
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Hans Selye from McGill University says Stress is a nonspecific response of the body to any demand made upon it. Regardless of the stressor thereaction is the same . This is known as General Adaptation Syndrome
 
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General Adaptation Syndrome has three stages:
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Stage One:The Alarm Reaction
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body is programmed for homeostasis ( a balanced state)
 
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when a stressor is presented body goes into flight or fight mode
 
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blood pressure increases, respiration rate increases; musclestense; digestion is inhibited; heart rate increases; blood flowincrease to extremities; adrenaline is secreted; perspirationincreases
 
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in ancient times stressor would present and disappear; now
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Stress and Life Style Mangement
stressor may not be as serious but may be seen in many placesresulting in prolonged stress reactions
 
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stress may be real or imagined
 
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Stage Two:The Resistance Phase
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body signs of stress disappear; resistance rises; neural glandularsystems become hyperactive; person remains in constant state of overstimulation
 
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Stage Three: The Exhaustion Stage
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Body exhausts itself and physical signs of stress reappear; nowthese may become irreversible; example high blood pressure
 
Distress versus Eustress
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not all stress is bad
 
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some seek stress -high sensation seeker-adrenaline junkie may be stressedwhen bored
 
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stress may play a part in healthy functioning; some stress challenges
 
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distress is negative and unwanted; Eustress produces positive feelings-enjoying the energy
 
3. Stress as an Interaction
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according to interactionists how much stress one experiences depends onthe event and the persons reaction to it. Responses to one event will varydepending on the how the stressor is interpreted
 
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Lazarus and Folkman (19840 say we first appraise the event and itsrelevance to us; if relevant, determine if threat; then decide if stressful; thenmake secondary appraisal=what resources do we have; the greater theresources, the less stress
 
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these appraisals are cognitive evaluations: interests, values, personal wants,beliefs, familiarity, controllability, predictability and imminence
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Interests: example-s stock market falls; if you have stock stress; nostock, no stress
 
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Values: If you value a person their negative opinion of you is stressful
 
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Personal Wants; a shy person would not want o assume leadership
 
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Beliefs irrational beliefs can contribute to stress
 
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Familiarity: Familiarity decrease the amount of stress- been there,done that
 
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Controllability: the more control the less stress- who is to blame?
 
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Predictability: If you know what is coming it can be less stressfulexample: layoff 
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