ormer being a range extender EV (battery toppedby a gas-powered generator) and the latter being a purely battery driven vehicle
. Te Volt is aimed atthe driver with a disposable income (prices start at$40,000) who is wary o being stranded roadside with a dead battery, oering 40 initial miles o all-electric driving until the small gas engine kicks into extend range up to hundreds o miles
. Te Lea, which costs signicantly less ($25,280 aer a ed-eral tax credit), is an all-electric vehicle with a statedrange o 100 miles, aimed at the earliest technol-ogy adopters who have the capacity to charge their vehicle overnight in their own garages. o increasethe Lea’s viability and chances or long-term suc-cess, Nissan is banking on the widespread imple-mentation o electric vehicle inrastructure along American roads in the near uture. Te companyis condent enough in its prospects that it has al-ready retooled its manuacturing plant in Smyrna,ennessee to make up to 150,000 Leas annually
.In addition to these new models rom the majorautomobile players, there are growing number o electric vehicle startups making notable inroads intothe EV industry. Coda Automotive is a Caliornia-based company that is developing an all-electricsedan with a range o 120 miles, powered by Chinesebatteries and American electronics and assembled inOakland, the company plans to put 14,000 Codason the road starting next year with prices starting at $37,000
. Smith Electric Vehicles is a KansasCity-based subsidiary o the UK automotive com- pany. Tey developed a line o all-electric mediumduty trucks or delivery feets that run on electric
Te 100% electric 2011 Nissan Lea
power trains made by Enova Systems o or-rance, CA, to be initially sold to major deliverycompanies like UPS and FedEx
. Compared to thedirectional whims o individual vehicle owners, theset routes that are driven by delivery trucks makerange anxiety less o an issue or delivery companies.Over the next ew years, EVs are sure to take hold o the automobile market in a signicant way, but willbe most concentrated in urban locations and with-in local delivery feets
. Electric vehicles will notappear on a majority o American roads until thereis a recharging network with enough reach to acili-tate travel not only within but between major cities.
Running more and more vehicles on electrons insteado ossil uel will require both a substantial invest-ment in power distribution inrastructure and signi-icant public education eorts. Tere are three powerlevels o recharging stations that have been identiedby electricity providers.
is a standard 120-voltelectric outlet, which can be ound in the garage o many homes and will ully recharge an EV battery in14 hours.
is a 240-volt/32 amp AC system with a specialized plug and socket (similar to the onesused or rerigerators), which will ully charge a bat-tery in 4 to 8 hours but require substantial electricityservice upgrades or homeowners.
is a 500- volt/125 amp system that will charge a battery in just30 minutes, but require three phase electric circuits(similar to the ones ound in the rooop HVACsystems o high rises) and in the case o service sta-tions with multiple recharge points, will require anelectricity capacity on the order o megawatts
. Widespread usage o electric vehicles will presentthe U.S. economy with a variety o downstreambusiness oppurtunities. Te recharging o EVs willrepresent a huge increase in the peak load demandon electric power utilities, and will be dependent ontechnology or charging providers to communicate with power plants or load shedding and suddenincreases in demand. Utilities and large electricalequipment manuacturers are realizing the potentialo the Electric Vehicle Service Equipment (EVSE)