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Published by Debidutta Pattanaik

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Published by: Debidutta Pattanaik on Dec 28, 2010
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Material is Prepared By: Mr.Ajit Kumar Mahapatra, Lect. In Computer Science (ContactNumber: 9853277844)
 Unit-1Evolution of the operating system, resident monitor, batch processing,multiprogramming, multiprocessing, time sharing, real time system, I/O interrupt,DMA, dual mode operation, operating system services.EVOLUTION OF THE OPERATING SYSTEM
An operating system is an integrated set of program that is used to manage the variousresources and overall operations of a computer system. Operating system goes by manydifferent names depending on the manufacture of the computer. Other terms used to describeoperating systems are, monitor, executive supervisor controller programs. An operatingsystem manage and co-ordinates the function performed by the computer hardware,including the CPU, input device, secondary storage devices, communication and network equipment.When a number of computers connected through a network and more than one computer trying for a common printer or a common resources then the operating system follow someorder and manage the resources in an efficient manner. Generallyresource sharing in two ways “in time” and “in space”. When aresource is a time sharing resource first one of the tasks getsresource for some time, then another and so on. For example aCPU is an in time sharing system. In time sharing system, theoperating system fixes the time slot of the CPU. First one of the processes gets the CPU when the time slot expired the CPUswitches to next process in the ready queue. The other kind of sharing is the space sharing. In this method the user sharing thespace of the resources. For example the main memory consisting of several processes at atime. So the main difference between “in time” sharing resource and “in space” sharingresources is that “in time” resource is not divided in to units where as “in space” resource isdivided in to units. The structure of operating system consist four layers such as hardwire,software, system programs and application program. The hardware part consists of C.P.U,main memory, input /output devices, secondary storage etc. The software includes processmanagement routines, memory management routines, input/output control routine, filemanagement routine. The system programs layer consists of compiler, assembler, linker etc.The application programs are depending on the user.
 The first operating system was developed in the year 1950 for the IBM 701 computer. Thisoperating system was elementary in nature and was not as powerful as the operating systemof today’s computer. Since then lot of research has been carried out in this direction with theresult that today we are very powerful operating system and can execute several jobs at atime on the same machine.
Material is Prepared By: Mr.Ajit Kumar Mahapatra, Lect. In Computer Science (ContactNumber: 9853277844)
In the early days of computers job to job transaction was not automatic. For each job beexecuted by the computer the operator had to clear the main memory to remove any dataremaining from the previous job, load the program and data of the current job from the inputdevice, sets the appropriate switches and finally run the job to obtain the result from the out put device, after the completion of one job by the same process had to repeated for the next job by the computer operator because of this manual transaction for one job to another, lotsof computer time was wasted. Since the computer remain idle while the operator loaded or on loaded jobs .In order to reduce the idle time, a method of automatic job to job transactionwas devised with this facility when one job is finished, the system control is automaticallytransferred back to the operating system which automatically performs the house keeping jobs needed to load and run the next job.
1.Processor management that is assignment of processor to different task being
Performed by the computer system.3.Memory management that is allocation of main memory and other storage area of 
The system programmers as well as the user programs and data.5.Input /output management that is allocation of the different input and output
Device while one or more programs are being executed.7.Interpretation of command and instruction. Facilities easy communication
Between the Computer system and the computer operator.9.Transfer input from the key board (any one of the input devices) to the memory.10.Display the messages, be it input or output on the screen.11.Store data’s or programs in external storage device.12.Output data to the printer (any one of the output devices) from the memory.13.Control the printer and other peripherals.14.Load programs and packages from storage devices and media to the main memory.15.Copy data or programs from one device to another.16.Communicate, control, and provide error message given the status of peripherals and processes.17.Execute the user programs and commands.18.Protect working storage from overwriting by another program.19.Store details of data and location stored for all media and drives.20.Security and protection to the user data program and files.
The efficiency of an operating system and the overall performance of a computer system areusually measured in terms of the following:
Throughput is the amount of work that the system is able to do per unit time. Itis measured as the number of processes that are completed by the system per unit time.For example: if n processes are completed in en interval of t second, the throughput is takenas
processes per second during that interval. Throughput is normally measured in
processes/ hour
. The performance of the CPU is measured in terms of throughput (Meansthe performance of the CPU).
Turnaround time:
Turn around time is the interval from the time of submission of a job tothe system for processing to the time of completion of the job.
Material is Prepared By: Mr.Ajit Kumar Mahapatra, Lect. In Computer Science (ContactNumber: 9853277844)
Turn around time = Submission of the job- completion of a job.Response time
: Another measure used in case of interactive system is response time, whichis the interval from the time of submission of a job to the system for the processing to thetime the first response for the job is produced by the system.
A small program, called a resident monitor, is created to transfer control automatically fromone job to another. The resident monitor is always in memory or resident. When thecomputer was turned on, the resident monitor was invoked and it would transfer control to a program .When the programs terminated it would return control to the resident monitor,which would then go to the next program. Thus the resident monitor would automaticallysequence from one program to another andfrom one job to another. How the residentmonitor would knows which program toexecute? In addition to the program or datafor a job, the programmer included the controlcard, which contained directives to residentmonitor indicating the program to run.Control cards provide the information directlyto the monitor. Example: A normal user  program may require one of the three programs to run:1)The FORTRAN complier(FTN)2)The ASSEMBLER (ASM)3)User’s Program(RUN)We could use a separate control cards for each of three:$FTN: - Execute the FROTRANcomplier.$ASM: - Execute the assembler.$RUN: - Execute the user program.These cards tell the resident monitor which program to run. We can use twoadditional control cards to define the boundaries of each job:$JOB: - First card of the job.$END: - Final card of the job.These two cards might be useful in account for the machine resource used by the programmer. Parameter can be used to define the job name, account number to be charged,and so on. Other control cards can be defined for other function, such as asking the operator to load or unload a tape. One problem with control is how to distinguish them from data or  program cards. The solution is to identify them by a special character pattern on the card.Several system used the dollar sign character ($) in the first column to identify a controlcard. Others used a different card. A resident monitor has several identifiable parts:

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