×
Language:

48
2 Mathematics for Computing
2.1 Introduction
This chapter introduces the basic mathematics needed to understand the processesinvolved in the computer. Further, it underlines the implementation methods to holdnumbers in memory and the characteristics of computer’s main memory. The methodsbehind various mathematical manipulations of numbers are presented. Simple logicimplementations using combinational circuits are also discussed.
2.1.1 Why we need a computer?
Humans have inherited the reasoning ability based on primary logic. That is theability to distinguish True from False of an assertion. This unique ability can beimproved by repeated training. By extending this ability, humans exhibit what wecalled the deductive logical reasoning. (i.e. the ability to connect a series of statements for demonstrating a truth of an assertion.) This process can be done inprinciple by using human brain but to solve complex problems it needs more time.Therefore, people have devised a machine called the computer, to solve thesecomplex problems in a shorter period of time. It uses the same primary logic (now wecall them two way logic). True (T) or False (F)) in formulating the problem andfinding the solution. Therefore, the computer solves possible human problems withless time consumption.
2.1.2 Historical development of Logic
Aristotle (384 B.C.–322 B.C.) was the first person to write about ‘logic’. His writingswere the basic rules in which the understanding of what we called the knowledge isbased on. Later, a German Mathematician Leibniz introduced symbols to formulate theprocess of deductive reasoning similar to use of algebraic notations to studynumbers. English mathematicians George Boole and De Morgan founded the modernday subject of symbolic logic, which is the theoretical basis of modern computerscience present today.The TWO WAY LOGIC used by humans are thus represented by two symbols 1 and0 (used in mathematics) and therefore, algebra based on these two numbers provide adeep understanding of processes that can be implemented by a computer.

49
2.2 Number System
2.2.1 The need of a number system
A number system defines a set of values used to represent
quantity
. We talk aboutthe number of people attending a class, the number of modules taken by each student,and also use numbers to represent grades achieved by students in tests. All theseexamples emphasize the quantity.Quantifying values and items in relation to each other is helpful for us to make senseof our environment. We experienced this at an early age; figuring out if we have moretoys to play with, more presents, more toffees and so on. There also we talked aboutthe quantity.We use numbers every day for all our daily work. Knowing how numbers work willgive us an insight into how a computer uses them and stores them in memory.Mankind through the ages has used signs or symbols to represent numbers. The earlyforms were straight lines or groups of lines, where a group of six vertical lines with adiagonal line across represented one week. It is very difficult to represent large orvery small numbers using such a graphical approach.The Romans devised a number system which could represent all the numbers from 1to 1,000,000 using only seven symbols as shown below:
I = 1
V = 5
X = 10
L = 50
C = 100
D = 500
M = 1000
The number system in most common use today is the
Arabic
system. It was firstdeveloped by the
Hindus
and was used as early as the 3rd century BC. Theintroduction of the symbol 0, used to indicate the positional value of digits was veryimportant. We thus became familiar with the concept of groups of units such as tensof units, hundreds of units, thousands of units and so on.In number systems, it is often helpful to think of
recurring sets
, where a set of valuesis repeated over and over again.

50Considering the decimal number system, it has a set of values which range from 0 to9. This basic set is repeated over and over, creating larger numbers. (i.e. 10, 75, 190etc).
2.2.2 Different Number Systems
The
base value
of a number system is the number of different values the set hasbefore repeating itself. For example, decimal has a base of ten values, 0 to 9.

Binary = 2 (0, 1)

Octal = 8 (0 - 7)

Decimal = 10 (0 - 9)

Duodecimal = 12 symbols used for some purposes by the Romans

Hexadecimal = 16 (0 - 9, A-F)
Therefore, depending on the different
base values
we create different numbersystems.
2.2.3 The Weighting Factor
The weighting factor is the multiplier value applied to each column position of thenumber. For instance, decimal has a weighting factor of TEN, in that each column tothe left indicates a multiplication value increase of 10 over the previous column onthe right, ie; each column move to the left increases in a multiplying factor of 10.
200 =0 * 1 = 00 * 10 = 02 * 100 = 200-----200 (adding these up)-----
CLASS ACTIVITY 2.1
Using Roman number system shown above express Decimal 555 and 5320
Search History:
Searching...
Result 00 of 00
00 results for result for
• p.
• Notes