Marx argued on expansion of human freedom (freedom to realize one’s fullest capacities)as one of the basic criterion of human progress (cited in Blackwell, Smith and Sorenson,2003: 153). In
The Communist Manifesto
Marx looks forward to a society “in which thefree development of each is the condition for the free development of all” (Marx andEngels 1998: 41). However, this requires a continuous struggle to relieve the human being from the existing restraints so as to alter their relation with nature and amongthemselves. Such struggles continue to exist with the aspirations of human equality andsocial justice, which requires the fullest realization of human capacities that permit anintellectual growth as well as an abundance of material wealth (Marx et.al.,1998;Blackwell, et.al.,2003).Amartya Sen (1992, 1999) a modern economist brings his capability approach, which isin line with Marxist views of human freedom. Sen argues that people’s real freedom for leading valuable life is based on their capabilities to enjoy positive state of life such as being politically active, being healthy or literate. The capabilities represent ‘what peoplecan do or be’, and not what they can consume or on their incomes (Sen, 1992: 50; Sen,1999: 18). The latter are however, the means of well being. Sen disagrees with theutilitarian judgments of an individual’s wellbeing which is only based on resources, butignores the intrinsic interpersonal capabilities (Deneulin, 2006; Ingrid, 2003; Sen, 1992).People’s abilities to convert resources into capabilities differ based on the personal, political and social factors such as physical and mental disability, tradition, social normsand values, country’s infrastructures, climate and so on (Deneulin, 2006; Robeyin, 2003;Sen. 1999). These factors highly contribute to inequalities in capabilities and thereby thewell being.
2. Power Paradigm and Modernization
As power relates to human capabilities, resources, and authorities, it is perceived as a toolof strengthening or destrengthening one’s capacity over the other. More precisely, power can be exercised by the one who have capacity to control others (Dean, 2006; Chambers,2