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Table Of Contents

Examples of Erosive Damage
Purpose
Erosion -Description
Erosion ±Description-Continued
Erosion Mechanisms
Photographs of Damage
Summary Table
Types of Erosion Damage
Other Related Mechanisms
Photograph of Corrosion and Erosion Damage
Other Erosion Mechanisms
Photographs of Damage Caused by Steam
Cutting
For More Information
Quiz
Training Complete!
FAC vs. Erosion-Continued
Photographs of FAC Damage
Information on FAC
Cavitation -Introduction
Cavitation ±Mechanism
Cavitation ±Mechanism-Continued
Unsteady Pressure and Vibration
Cavitation -Mechanism
Schematic of Cavitation Process
Schematic of Cavitation Damage Rate vs. Time
Cavitation ±Damage
Degrees of Cavitation
Cavitation Regimes
Cavitation ±Noise and Damage
Cavitation ±Noise
Morphology
Cavitation Damage in a Plug Valve
Where to Look for Damage
Inspection Considerations
Design Options to Reduce Cavitation
Calculation Approach
Calculating Cavitation in Valves
Calculating Cavitation in Orifices
Calculating Cavitation in Orifices-Continued
Calculating Cavitation in Other Geometries
Information Sources
Four Regimes
Non-Ideal Behavior of a Valve
Using Regime Information
Some Design Guidance
Supercavitation
Supercavitation -Continued
Flo Curvature Cavitation -Introduction
Cavitation in an Elbo
Cavitation in an Elbo±Continued
Void Formation in an Elbo
Recirculation Cavitation
Examples of Recirculation Cavitation
Damage To Valve Internals
Damage to a Reducer
Damage Donstream of an Orifice
Damaged Surface Donstream of an Orifice
Valve Countermeasures
Valve Countermeasures-Continued
Valve Countermeasures±Continued
Valve Countermeasures -Continued
Orifice Countermeasures
Multiple-Holed Orifices
Orifices in Series
Proprietary Restrictors
Proprietary Restrictor
Another Proprietary Restrictor
Countermeasures ±Other Components
Anti-Cavitation Valve Types
Anti-Cavitation Valve ±Colliding Jet Arrangement
Anti-Cavitation Valve ±Stack Arrangement
Anti-Cavitation Valve ±Stack Arrangement-
Anti-Cavitation Valves ±General
Anti-Cavitation Valves ±General-Continued
III ±Anti-Cavitation Valve
Valtek Anti-Cavitation Stack Valve
Valtek Anti-Cavitation Sleeve Valve
Calculating Cavitation in Valves ±Basic
Definitions
Calculating Cavitation in Orifices ±Basic
Single-Hole Orifices
Sample Single-Hole Data
Series Orifices
Series Orifices ±Methodology
Series Orifices ±Methodology-Continued
Vena Contracta
High-Pressure Recovery Valves
High-Pressure Recovery Valves-Continued
High-and Lo-Pressure Recovery Valves
Lo-Pressure Recovery Valves
Cavitation Coefficient
Cavitation Index
Stages of Damage
Flashing Erosion ±Mechanism
Flashing Erosion ±Mechanism-Continued
Flashing Erosion ±Critical Flo
Flashing Erosion ±Morphology
Damage Caused by Flashing Erosion
Flashing Erosion
Where to Look for Damage±Continued
Countermeasures
Countermeasures±Continued
Calculation Approaches
Flashing
Critical Velocity
Critical Velocity±Continued
Acoustic Velocity
Acoustic Velocity of a Water-Steam Mixture
Droplet Impingement -Introduction
Droplet Impingement ±Introduction-Continued
Description of Mechanism
Description of Mechanism±Continued
Description of Mechanism-Continued
Damage vs. Time for Droplet Impingement
Droplet Impingement Damage in a Sparger
Countermeasures ±General Approaches
Calculation Models for Droplet Impingement
Calculation Models for Droplet Impingement ± Continued
Droplet Impingement Models
ASTM Model
Heymann¶s Model
Heymann¶s Model±Continued
Heymann¶s Model for Carbon Steel
Materials Considerations
Correlating Damage
Resistance of Materials
Recommendations
Repair Considerations
Solid Particle Erosion ±Introduction
Important Note
Impact of Velocity
Impact of Velocity-Continued
Solid Particle Erosion in a Steam Generator
Blodon Line
Material Resistance to Solid Particle Erosion
Materials Considerations-Continued
Calculation Models and Parametric Trends
Solid Particle Erosion -Parameters
Parametric Effects
Parametric Effects-Continued
Influence of Impact Angle on SPE
Most Commonly Used Models
Practical Limitations of SPE Models
Cavitation Erosion Damage to Pump Impellors
Control Valve Trim Damaged by Cavitation
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Erosion in Piping Systems

Erosion in Piping Systems

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Published by: rojasluisc9330 on Dec 28, 2010
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