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Chapter4_7thRatings: (0)|Views: 13|Likes: 0

Published by Luisellys

Solver Engineering Electromagnetics - Hayt & Buck - 7th Edition

Solver Engineering Electromagnetics - Hayt & Buck - 7th Edition

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/45997988/Chapter4-7th

12/28/2010

text

original

CHAPTER 4

4.1. The value of

E

at

P

(

ρ

= 2

, φ

= 40

◦

, z

= 3) is given as

E

= 100

a

ρ

−

200

a

φ

+ 300

a

z

V/m.Determine the incremental work required to move a 20

µ

C charge a distance of 6

µ

m:a) in the direction of

a

ρ

: The incremental work is given by

dW

=

−

q

E

·

d

L

, where in thiscase,

d

L

=

dρ

a

ρ

= 6

×

10

−

6

a

ρ

. Thus

dW

=

−

(20

×

10

−

6

C)(100V

/

m)(6

×

10

−

6

m) =

−

12

×

10

−

9

J =

−

12nJb) in the direction of

a

φ

: In this case

d

L

= 2

dφ

a

φ

= 6

×

10

−

6

a

φ

, and so

dW

=

−

(20

×

10

−

6

)(

−

200)(6

×

10

−

6

) = 2

.

4

×

10

−

8

J = 24 nJc) in the direction of

a

z

: Here,

d

L

=

dz

a

z

= 6

×

10

−

6

a

z

, and so

dW

=

−

(20

×

10

−

6

)(300)(6

×

10

−

6

) =

−

3

.

6

×

10

−

8

J =

−

36 nJd) in the direction of

E

: Here,

d

L

= 6

×

10

−

6

a

E

, where

a

E

=100

a

ρ

−

200

a

φ

+ 300

a

z

[100

2

+ 200

2

+ 300

2

]

1

/

2

= 0

.

267

a

ρ

−

0

.

535

a

φ

+ 0

.

802

a

z

Thus

dW

=

−

(20

×

10

−

6

)[100

a

ρ

−

200

a

φ

+ 300

a

z

]

·

[0

.

267

a

ρ

−

0

.

535

a

φ

+ 0

.

802

a

z

](6

×

10

−

6

)=

−

44

.

9nJe) In the direction of

G

= 2

a

x

−

3

a

y

+ 4

a

z

: In this case,

d

L

= 6

×

10

−

6

a

G

, where

a

G

=2

a

x

−

3

a

y

+ 4

a

z

[2

2

+ 3

2

+ 4

2

]

1

/

2

= 0

.

371

a

x

−

0

.

557

a

y

+ 0

.

743

a

z

So now

dW

=

−

(20

×

10

−

6

)[100

a

ρ

−

200

a

φ

+ 300

a

z

]

·

[0

.

371

a

x

−

0

.

557

a

y

+ 0

.

743

a

z

](6

×

10

−

6

)=

−

(20

×

10

−

6

)[37

.

1(

a

ρ

·

a

x

)

−

55

.

7(

a

ρ

·

a

y

)

−

74

.

2(

a

φ

·

a

x

) + 111

.

4(

a

φ

·

a

y

)+ 222

.

9](6

×

10

−

6

)where, at

P

, (

a

ρ

·

a

x

) = (

a

φ

·

a

y

) = cos(40

◦

) = 0

.

766, (

a

ρ

·

a

y

) = sin(40

◦

) = 0

.

643, and(

a

φ

·

a

x

) =

−

sin(40

◦

) =

−

0

.

643. Substituting these results in

dW

=

−

(20

×

10

−

6

)[28

.

4

−

35

.

8 + 47

.

7 + 85

.

3 + 222

.

9](6

×

10

−

6

) =

−

41

.

8nJ42

4.2. An electric ﬁeld is given as

E

=

−

10

e

y

(sin2

z

a

x

+

x

sin2

z

a

y

+ 2

x

cos2

z

a

z

) V/m.a) Find

E

at

P

(5

,

0

,π/

12): Substituting this point into the given ﬁeld produces

E

P

=

−

10[sin(

π/

6)

a

x

+ 5sin(

π/

6)

a

y

+ 10cos(

π/

6)

a

z

] =

−

5

a

x

+ 25

a

y

+ 50

√

3

a

z

b) How much work is done in moving a charge of 2 nC an incremental distance of 1 mmfrom

P

in the direction of

a

x

? This will be

dW

x

=

−

q

E

·

dL

a

x

=

−

2

×

10

−

9

(

−

5)(10

−

3

) = 10

−

11

J = 10 pJc) of

a

y

?

dW

y

=

−

q

E

·

dL

a

y

=

−

2

×

10

−

9

(

−

25)(10

−

3

) = 50

−

11

J = 50 pJd) of

a

z

?

dW

z

=

−

q

E

·

dL

a

z

=

−

2

×

10

−

9

(

−

50

√

3)(10

−

3

) = 100

√

3 pJe) of (

a

x

+

a

y

+

a

z

)?

dW

xyz

=

−

q

E

·

dL

a

x

+

a

y

+

a

z

)

√

3=10 + 50 + 100

√

3

√

3= 135 pJ4.3. If

E

= 120

a

ρ

V

/

m, ﬁnd the incremental amount of work done in moving a 50

µ

m charge adistance of 2 mm from:a)

P

(1

,

2

,

3) toward

Q

(2

,

1

,

4): The vector along this direction will be

Q

−

P

= (1

,

−

1

,

1)from which

a

PQ

= [

a

x

−

a

y

+

a

z

]

/

√

3. We now write

dW

=

−

q

E

·

d

L

=

−

(50

×

10

−

6

)

120

a

ρ

·

(

a

x

−

a

y

+

a

z

√

3

(2

×

10

−

3

)=

−

(50

×

10

−

6

)(120)[(

a

ρ

·

a

x

)

−

(

a

ρ

·

a

y

)]1

√

3(2

×

10

−

3

)At

P

,

φ

= tan

−

1

(2

/

1) = 63

.

4

◦

. Thus (

a

ρ

·

a

x

) = cos(63

.

4) = 0

.

447 and (

a

ρ

·

a

y

) =sin(63

.

4) = 0

.

894. Substituting these, we obtain

dW

= 3

.

1

µ

J.b)

Q

(2

,

1

,

4) toward

P

(1

,

2

,

3): A little thought is in order here: Note that the ﬁeld has onlya radial component and does not depend on

φ

or

z

. Note also that

P

and

Q

are at thesame radius (

√

5) from the

z

axis, but have diﬀerent

φ

and

z

coordinates. We could justas well position the two points at the same

z

location and the problem would not change.If this were so, then moving along a straight line between

P

and

Q

would thus involvemoving along a chord of a circle whose radius is

√

5. Halfway along this line is a point of symmetry in the ﬁeld (make a sketch to see this). This means that when starting fromeither point, the initial force will be the same. Thus the answer is

dW

= 3

.

1

µ

J as in part

a

. This is also found by going through the same procedure as in part

a

, but with thedirection (roles of

P

and

Q

) reversed.43

4.4. It is found that the energy expended in carrying a charge of 4

µ

C from the origin to (x,0,0)along the

x

axis is directly proportional to the square of the path length. If

E

x

= 7 V/m at(1,0,0), determine

E

x

on the

x

axis as a function of

x

.The work done is in general given by

W

=

−

q

x

0

E

x

dx

=

Ax

2

where

A

is a constant. Therefore

E

x

must be of the form

E

x

=

E

0

x

. At

x

= 1,

E

x

= 7,so

E

0

= 7. Therefore

E

x

= 7

x

V

/

m. Note that with the positive-

x

-directed ﬁeld, theexpended energy in moving the charge from 0 to

x

would be negative.4.5. Compute the value of

P A

G

·

d

L

for

G

= 2

y

a

x

with

A

(1

,

−

1

,

2) and

P

(2

,

1

,

2) using the path:a) straight-line segments

A

(1

,

−

1

,

2) to

B

(1

,

1

,

2) to

P

(2

,

1

,

2): In general we would have

P A

G

·

d

L

=

P A

2

ydx

The change in

x

occurs when moving between

B

and

P

, during which

y

= 1. Thus

P A

G

·

d

L

=

P B

2

ydx

=

21

2(1)

dx

= 2b) straight-line segments

A

(1

,

−

1

,

2) to

C

(2

,

−

1

,

2) to

P

(2

,

1

,

2): In this case the change in

x

occurs when moving from

A

to

C

, during which

y

=

−

1. Thus

P A

G

·

d

L

=

C A

2

ydx

=

21

2(

−

1)

dx

=

−

24.6. Determine the work done in carrying a 2-

µ

C charge from (2,1,-1) to (8,2,-1) in the ﬁeld

E

=

y

a

x

+

x

a

y

alonga) the parabola

x

= 2

y

2

: As a look ahead, we can show (by taking its curl) that

E

isconservative. We therefore expect the same answer for all three paths. The generalexpression for the work is

W

=

−

q

BA

E

·

d

L

=

−

q

82

ydx

+

21

xdy

In the present case,

x

= 2

y

2

, and so

y

=

x/

2. Substituting these and the charge, weget

W

1

=

−

2

×

10

−

6

82

x/

2

dx

+

21

2

y

2

dy

=

−

2

×

10

−

6

√

23

x

3

/

2

82

+23

y

3

21

=

−

28

µ

Jb) the hyperbola

x

= 8

/

(7

−

3

y

): We ﬁnd

y

= 7

/

3

−

8

/

3

x

, and the work is

W

2

=

−

2

×

10

−

6

82

73

−

83

x

dx

+

21

87

−

3

ydy

=

−

2

×

10

−

6

73(8

−

2)

−

83ln

82

−

83ln(7

−

3

y

)

21

=

−

28

µ

J44

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