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Chapter4_7th

# Chapter4_7th

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Solver Engineering Electromagnetics - Hayt & Buck - 7th Edition
Solver Engineering Electromagnetics - Hayt & Buck - 7th Edition

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12/28/2010

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CHAPTER 4
4.1. The value of
E
at
(
ρ
= 2
, φ
= 40
, z
= 3) is given as
E
= 100
a
ρ
200
a
φ
+ 300
a
z
V/m.Determine the incremental work required to move a 20
µ
C charge a distance of 6
µ
m:a) in the direction of
a
ρ
: The incremental work is given by
dW
=
q
E
·
d
L
, where in thiscase,
d
L
=
a
ρ
= 6
×
10
6
a
ρ
. Thus
dW
=
(20
×
10
6
C)(100V
/
m)(6
×
10
6
m) =
12
×
10
9
J =
12nJb) in the direction of
a
φ
: In this case
d
L
= 2
a
φ
= 6
×
10
6
a
φ
, and so
dW
=
(20
×
10
6
)(
200)(6
×
10
6
) = 2
.
4
×
10
8
J = 24 nJc) in the direction of
a
z
: Here,
d
L
=
dz
a
z
= 6
×
10
6
a
z
, and so
dW
=
(20
×
10
6
)(300)(6
×
10
6
) =
3
.
6
×
10
8
J =
36 nJd) in the direction of
E
: Here,
d
L
= 6
×
10
6
a
E
, where
a
E
=100
a
ρ
200
a
φ
+ 300
a
z
[100
2
+ 200
2
+ 300
2
]
1
/
2
= 0
.
267
a
ρ
0
.
535
a
φ
+ 0
.
802
a
z
Thus
dW
=
(20
×
10
6
)[100
a
ρ
200
a
φ
+ 300
a
z
]
·
[0
.
267
a
ρ
0
.
535
a
φ
+ 0
.
802
a
z
](6
×
10
6
)=
44
.
9nJe) In the direction of
G
= 2
a
x
3
a
y
+ 4
a
z
: In this case,
d
L
= 6
×
10
6
a
G
, where
a
G
=2
a
x
3
a
y
+ 4
a
z
[2
2
+ 3
2
+ 4
2
]
1
/
2
= 0
.
371
a
x
0
.
557
a
y
+ 0
.
743
a
z
So now
dW
=
(20
×
10
6
)[100
a
ρ
200
a
φ
+ 300
a
z
]
·
[0
.
371
a
x
0
.
557
a
y
+ 0
.
743
a
z
](6
×
10
6
)=
(20
×
10
6
)[37
.
1(
a
ρ
·
a
x
)
55
.
7(
a
ρ
·
a
y
)
74
.
2(
a
φ
·
a
x
) + 111
.
4(
a
φ
·
a
y
)+ 222
.
9](6
×
10
6
)where, at
, (
a
ρ
·
a
x
) = (
a
φ
·
a
y
) = cos(40
) = 0
.
766, (
a
ρ
·
a
y
) = sin(40
) = 0
.
643, and(
a
φ
·
a
x
) =
sin(40
) =
0
.
643. Substituting these results in
dW
=
(20
×
10
6
)[28
.
4
35
.
8 + 47
.
7 + 85
.
3 + 222
.
9](6
×
10
6
) =
41
.
8nJ42

4.2. An electric ﬁeld is given as
E
=
10
e
y
(sin2
z
a
x
+
x
sin2
z
a
y
+ 2
x
cos2
z
a
z
) V/m.a) Find
E
at
(5
,
0
,π/
12): Substituting this point into the given ﬁeld produces
E
=
10[sin(
π/
6)
a
x
+ 5sin(
π/
6)
a
y
+ 10cos(
π/
6)
a
z
] =
5
a
x
+ 25
a
y
+ 50
3
a
z
b) How much work is done in moving a charge of 2 nC an incremental distance of 1 mmfrom
in the direction of
a
x
? This will be
dW
x
=
q
E
·
dL
a
x
=
2
×
10
9
(
5)(10
3
) = 10
11
J = 10 pJc) of
a
y
?
dW
y
=
q
E
·
dL
a
y
=
2
×
10
9
(
25)(10
3
) = 50
11
J = 50 pJd) of
a
z
?
dW
z
=
q
E
·
dL
a
z
=
2
×
10
9
(
50
3)(10
3
) = 100
3 pJe) of (
a
x
+
a
y
+
a
z
)?
dW
xyz
=
q
E
·
dL
a
x
+
a
y
+
a
z
)
3=10 + 50 + 100
3
3= 135 pJ4.3. If
E
= 120
a
ρ
V
/
m, ﬁnd the incremental amount of work done in moving a 50
µ
m charge adistance of 2 mm from:a)
(1
,
2
,
3) toward
Q
(2
,
1
,
4): The vector along this direction will be
Q
= (1
,
1
,
1)from which
a
PQ
= [
a
x
a
y
+
a
z
]
/
3. We now write
dW
=
q
E
·
d
L
=
(50
×
10
6
)
120
a
ρ
·
(
a
x
a
y
+
a
z
3
(2
×
10
3
)=
(50
×
10
6
)(120)[(
a
ρ
·
a
x
)
(
a
ρ
·
a
y
)]1
3(2
×
10
3
)At
,
φ
= tan
1
(2
/
1) = 63
.
4
. Thus (
a
ρ
·
a
x
) = cos(63
.
4) = 0
.
447 and (
a
ρ
·
a
y
) =sin(63
.
4) = 0
.
894. Substituting these, we obtain
dW
= 3
.
1
µ
J.b)
Q
(2
,
1
,
4) toward
(1
,
2
,
3): A little thought is in order here: Note that the ﬁeld has onlya radial component and does not depend on
φ
or
z
. Note also that
and
Q
5) from the
z
axis, but have diﬀerent
φ
and
z
coordinates. We could justas well position the two points at the same
z
location and the problem would not change.If this were so, then moving along a straight line between
and
Q
would thus involvemoving along a chord of a circle whose radius is
5. Halfway along this line is a point of symmetry in the ﬁeld (make a sketch to see this). This means that when starting fromeither point, the initial force will be the same. Thus the answer is
dW
= 3
.
1
µ
J as in part
a
. This is also found by going through the same procedure as in part
a
, but with thedirection (roles of
and
Q
) reversed.43

4.4. It is found that the energy expended in carrying a charge of 4
µ
C from the origin to (x,0,0)along the
x
axis is directly proportional to the square of the path length. If
x
= 7 V/m at(1,0,0), determine
x
on the
x
axis as a function of
x
.The work done is in general given by
=
q

x
0
x
dx
=
Ax
2
where
A
is a constant. Therefore
x
must be of the form
x
=
0
x
. At
x
= 1,
x
= 7,so
0
= 7. Therefore
x
= 7
x
V
/
m. Note that with the positive-
x
-directed ﬁeld, theexpended energy in moving the charge from 0 to
x
would be negative.4.5. Compute the value of

A
G
·
d
L
for
G
= 2
y
a
x
with
A
(1
,
1
,
2) and
(2
,
1
,
2) using the path:a) straight-line segments
A
(1
,
1
,
2) to
B
(1
,
1
,
2) to
(2
,
1
,
2): In general we would have

A
G
·
d
L
=

A
2
ydx
The change in
x
occurs when moving between
B
and
, during which
y
= 1. Thus

A
G
·
d
L
=

B
2
ydx
=

21
2(1)
dx
= 2b) straight-line segments
A
(1
,
1
,
2) to
(2
,
1
,
2) to
(2
,
1
,
2): In this case the change in
x
occurs when moving from
A
to
, during which
y
=
1. Thus

A
G
·
d
L
=

A
2
ydx
=

21
2(
1)
dx
=
24.6. Determine the work done in carrying a 2-
µ
C charge from (2,1,-1) to (8,2,-1) in the ﬁeld
E
=
y
a
x
+
x
a
y
alonga) the parabola
x
= 2
y
2
: As a look ahead, we can show (by taking its curl) that
E
isconservative. We therefore expect the same answer for all three paths. The generalexpression for the work is
=
q

BA
E
·
d
L
=
q

82
ydx
+

21
xdy
In the present case,
x
= 2
y
2
, and so
y
=

x/
2. Substituting these and the charge, weget
1
=
2
×
10
6

82

x/
2
dx
+

21
2
y
2
dy
=
2
×
10
6
23
x
3
/
2
82
+23
y
3
21
=
28
µ
Jb) the hyperbola
x
= 8
/
(7
3
y
): We ﬁnd
y
= 7
/
3
8
/
3
x
, and the work is
2
=
2
×
10
6

82
73
83
x
dx
+

21
87
3
ydy
=
2
×
10
6
73(8
2)
83ln
82
83ln(7
3
y
)
21
=
28
µ
J44